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Article

Magnolia and Viburnum Plant Factors at Different Growing Seasons and Allowed Depletion Levels in a Monsoonal Climate

1
Mid-Florida Research and Education Center, University of Florida, Apopka, FL 32703, USA
2
Center for Land Use Efficiency, Department of Agricultural and Biological Engineering, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Pilar Montesinos
Water 2021, 13(13), 1744; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13131744
Received: 21 May 2021 / Revised: 14 June 2021 / Accepted: 16 June 2021 / Published: 24 June 2021
We investigated seasonal water use, growth and acceptable root-zone water depletion levels to develop tools for the more precise irrigation of two Southeast U.S. landscape species in a monsoonal climate—Magnolia grandiflora and Viburnum odoratissimum. The study was conducted under a rainout shelter consisting of two concurrent studies. One, weighing lysimeter readings of quantified water use (ETA) at different levels of irrigation frequency that dried the root zone to different allowable depletion levels (ADL). Two, planting the same species and sizes inground and irrigating them to the same ADLs to assess the effect of root-zone water depletion on growth. The projected crown area (PCA) and crown volume were concurrently measured every three weeks in both studies as well as reference evapotranspiration (ETo). Plant factor values were calculated from the ratio of ETA (normalized to depth units by PCA) to ETo. The two species had different tolerances for irrigation frequency depending on the season: peak magnolia canopy growth was mid-spring to mid-summer, while peak viburnum canopy growth was summer. Canopy growth for both species was most sensitive to greater ADL-water stress during the peak growth stages of both species. For urban landscape irrigation, these data suggest that 60–75% of available water in magnolia and viburnum root zones can be depleted before irrigation and that they can be irrigated at a plant factor (PF) value of 0.6 of ETo. For landscape situations with high expectations, such as during establishment and especially during peak growth, a wetter water budget that minimizes water stress would be more appropriate: 30–45% ADL and PF values of 0.7–0.8. The results of this study are aimed at water managers and landscape architects and designers in a humid climate who need to account for water demand in planning scenarios. View Full-Text
Keywords: Magnolia grandiflora; Viburnum odoratissimum; growth; weighing lysimeter; water consumption; water conservation; evapotranspiration; plant factor Magnolia grandiflora; Viburnum odoratissimum; growth; weighing lysimeter; water consumption; water conservation; evapotranspiration; plant factor
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MDPI and ACS Style

Sun, H.; Kjelgren, R.; Dukes, M.D.; Beeson, R.C. Magnolia and Viburnum Plant Factors at Different Growing Seasons and Allowed Depletion Levels in a Monsoonal Climate. Water 2021, 13, 1744. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13131744

AMA Style

Sun H, Kjelgren R, Dukes MD, Beeson RC. Magnolia and Viburnum Plant Factors at Different Growing Seasons and Allowed Depletion Levels in a Monsoonal Climate. Water. 2021; 13(13):1744. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13131744

Chicago/Turabian Style

Sun, Hongyan, Roger Kjelgren, Michael D. Dukes, and Richard C. Beeson 2021. "Magnolia and Viburnum Plant Factors at Different Growing Seasons and Allowed Depletion Levels in a Monsoonal Climate" Water 13, no. 13: 1744. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13131744

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