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Article

Projecting Relative Sea Level Rise under Climate Change at the Phrachula Chomklao Fort Tide Gauge in the Upper Gulf of Thailand

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Water Engineering and Management, Asian Institute of Technology, P.O. Box 4, Klong Luang, Pathumthani 12120, Thailand
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Hydro Informatics Institute, 901 Lat Yao, Chatuchak, Bangkok 10900, Thailand
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Urban Environmental Management, Asian Institute of Technology, P.O. Box 4, Klong Luang, Pathumthani 12120, Thailand
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Xing Fang
Water 2021, 13(12), 1702; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13121702
Received: 8 May 2021 / Revised: 9 June 2021 / Accepted: 16 June 2021 / Published: 19 June 2021
(This article belongs to the Section Oceans and Coastal Zones)
This study aims to project future sea-level rise (SLR) at the Phrachula Chomklao Fort (PCF) tide gauge station in the Upper Gulf of Thailand (UGoT) using the outputs of 35 climate models under two greenhouse gas concentration scenarios: representative concentration pathway 4.5 (RCP4.5) and RCP8.5. The Linear Scaling method was found to be better than Variance Scaling and Quantile Mapping methods for removing biases in raw Global Circulation Models (GCMs) sea level data. Land subsidence, induced by excessive groundwater abstraction, was found to contribute significantly to SLR during the observed period the PCF gauging station; hence, the effects of land subsidence had to be removed from relative sea level before bias correction. The overall increase in SLR is projected to be 0.94–1.05 mm/year under RCP4.5 and 1.07–1.18 mm/year under RCP8.5 for the twenty-first century in the UGoT. The results suggest that future SLR due to climate change will not be as severe in the study region compared to average global projections. However, land subsidence can amplify future SLR. It is therefore important to regulate groundwater abstraction in the future so that SLR can be restricted. It is even more relevant in the UGoT as the raw water intake from the Chao Phraya River for municipal water supply to Bangkok is close to the estuary, and SLR in the future can pose additional challenges for the water utility. View Full-Text
Keywords: climate change; bias correction; sea level rise; land subsidence; coastal countries; Gulf of Thailand climate change; bias correction; sea level rise; land subsidence; coastal countries; Gulf of Thailand
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MDPI and ACS Style

Jaroenongard, C.; Babel, M.S.; Shrestha, S.; Weesakul, S.; Nitivattananon, V.; Khadka, D. Projecting Relative Sea Level Rise under Climate Change at the Phrachula Chomklao Fort Tide Gauge in the Upper Gulf of Thailand. Water 2021, 13, 1702. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13121702

AMA Style

Jaroenongard C, Babel MS, Shrestha S, Weesakul S, Nitivattananon V, Khadka D. Projecting Relative Sea Level Rise under Climate Change at the Phrachula Chomklao Fort Tide Gauge in the Upper Gulf of Thailand. Water. 2021; 13(12):1702. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13121702

Chicago/Turabian Style

Jaroenongard, Chirayu, Mukand S. Babel, Sangam Shrestha, Sutat Weesakul, Vilas Nitivattananon, and Dibesh Khadka. 2021. "Projecting Relative Sea Level Rise under Climate Change at the Phrachula Chomklao Fort Tide Gauge in the Upper Gulf of Thailand" Water 13, no. 12: 1702. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13121702

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