Next Article in Journal
The Decision of an Eco-Friendly Reservoir Operation Scheme Based on a Variable Set
Previous Article in Journal
Variations in Benthic Macroinvertebrate Communities and Biological Quality in the Aguarico and Coca River Basins in the Ecuadorian Amazon
Previous Article in Special Issue
Assessing the Agricultural Water Savings–Economy–Ecological Environment System in an Arid Area of Northwest China Using a Water Rights Transaction Model
Article

An In-Depth Analysis of Physical Blue and Green Water Scarcity in Agriculture in Terms of Causes and Events and Perceived Amenability to Economic Interpretation

1
Travaux Publics, Becket House, London SE1 7EU, UK
2
Department of Water Resources and Environmental Engineering, School of Civil Engineering, National Technical University of Athens, Zografou, 157 80 Athens, Greece
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Luis Garrote
Water 2021, 13(12), 1693; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13121693
Received: 21 May 2021 / Revised: 3 June 2021 / Accepted: 4 June 2021 / Published: 18 June 2021
An analytical review of physical blue and green water scarcity in terms of agricultural use, and its amenability to economic interpretation, is presented, employing more than 600 references. The main definitions and classifications involved and information about reserves and resources are critically analyzed, blue and green water scarcity are examined along with their interchange, while their causal connection with climate in general is analyzed along with the particular instances of Europe, Africa, Asia and the WANA region. The role of teleconnections and evaporation/moisture import-export is examined as forms of action at a distance. The human intervention scarcity driver is examined extensively in terms of land use land cover change (LULCC), as well as population increase. The discussion deals with following critical problems: green and blue water availability, inadequate accessibility, blue water loss, unevenly distributed precipitation, climate uncertainty and country level over global level precedence. The conclusion singles out, among others, problems emerging from the inter-relationship of physical variables and the difficulty to translate them into economic instrumental variables, as well as the lack of imbedding uncertainty in the underlying physical theory due to the fact that country level measurements are not methodically assumed to be the basic building block of regional and global water scarcity. View Full-Text
Keywords: blue water; green water; scarcity; climate; water availability; inadequate water accessibility; climate uncertainty; land use land cover change; population blue water; green water; scarcity; climate; water availability; inadequate water accessibility; climate uncertainty; land use land cover change; population
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Zisopoulou, K.; Panagoulia, D. An In-Depth Analysis of Physical Blue and Green Water Scarcity in Agriculture in Terms of Causes and Events and Perceived Amenability to Economic Interpretation. Water 2021, 13, 1693. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13121693

AMA Style

Zisopoulou K, Panagoulia D. An In-Depth Analysis of Physical Blue and Green Water Scarcity in Agriculture in Terms of Causes and Events and Perceived Amenability to Economic Interpretation. Water. 2021; 13(12):1693. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13121693

Chicago/Turabian Style

Zisopoulou, Kalomoira, and Dionysia Panagoulia. 2021. "An In-Depth Analysis of Physical Blue and Green Water Scarcity in Agriculture in Terms of Causes and Events and Perceived Amenability to Economic Interpretation" Water 13, no. 12: 1693. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13121693

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop