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Article

Evapotranspiration Measurement and Estimation of Crop Coefficient for Native Plant Species of Green Roof in the Tropics

1
Discipline of Civil Engineering, School of Engineering, Monash University Malaysia, Jalan Lagoon Selatan, Bandar Sunway 47500, Selangor, Malaysia
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Institute of Energy Infrastructure (IEI), Universiti Tenaga Nasional (UNITEN), Kajang 43000, Selangor, Malaysia
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Department of Civil Engineering, College of Engineering, Universiti Tenaga Nasional, Kajang 43000, Selangor, Malaysia
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Institute of Sustainable Energy (ISE), Universiti Tenaga Nasional (UNITEN), Kajang 43000, Selangor, Malaysia
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Universiti Tunku Abdul Rahman, Jalan Sungai Long, Bandar Sungai Long, Kajang 43000, Selangor, Malaysia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Cristina M. Monteiro and Cristina Matos Silva
Water 2021, 13(12), 1669; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13121669
Received: 7 January 2021 / Revised: 29 May 2021 / Accepted: 9 June 2021 / Published: 15 June 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Green Infrastructure as a Technology for Rainwater Retention)
Extensive green roof is one of the sustainable urban stormwater management alternatives to manage and mitigate the urban surface runoff. In order to implement green roofs more effectively, suitable plant species and substrate components for tropical climate must be identified. The aim of this study is to investigate the evapotranspiration (ET) behaviors in extensive green roofs based on different substrate types and local native plant species. Four green roof test beds containing pro-mixing pot and burn soils were each vegetated with Axonopus Compressus (grass) and Portulaca Grandiflora (sedum). A weather station with soil moisture sensors was installed to measure the weather and soil moisture data. The results showed that the mean ET rates for grass-pot soil, sedum-pot soil, grass-burn soil and sedum-burn soil were 1.32 ± 0.41 mm/day, 2.31 ± 0.72 mm/day, 1.47 ± 0.39 mm/day and 2.31 ± 0.43 mm/day, respectively. It is noted that environmental parameters such as ambient temperature, solar radiation and wind speed showed significantly positive relationship (p value < 0.01) with ET rates of green roofs except relative humidity. The crop coefficients (Ks) for the studied green roof plant species are estimated based on actual and reference evapotranspiration rates. The sedum planted in burn soil showed the highest crop coefficient (0.64), followed by sedum in pot soil (0.62), grass in burn soil (0.39) and grass in pot soils (0.37), respectively. The findings in this study also showed that substrate with better water retention capacity generally improved the Ks values. View Full-Text
Keywords: evapotranspiration; extensive green roof; green infrastructures; sedum; tropical evapotranspiration; extensive green roof; green infrastructures; sedum; tropical
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MDPI and ACS Style

Chow, M.F.; Bakar, M.F.A.; Wong, J.K.; Ling, L. Evapotranspiration Measurement and Estimation of Crop Coefficient for Native Plant Species of Green Roof in the Tropics. Water 2021, 13, 1669. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13121669

AMA Style

Chow MF, Bakar MFA, Wong JK, Ling L. Evapotranspiration Measurement and Estimation of Crop Coefficient for Native Plant Species of Green Roof in the Tropics. Water. 2021; 13(12):1669. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13121669

Chicago/Turabian Style

Chow, Ming F., Muhammad F.A. Bakar, Jee K. Wong, and Lloyd Ling. 2021. "Evapotranspiration Measurement and Estimation of Crop Coefficient for Native Plant Species of Green Roof in the Tropics" Water 13, no. 12: 1669. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13121669

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