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Article

Overland Flow Resistance Law under Sparse Stem Vegetation Coverage

College of Earth Science and Engineering, Shandong University of Science and Technology, Qingdao 266590, China
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Costanza Aricò
Water 2021, 13(12), 1657; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13121657
Received: 26 April 2021 / Revised: 28 May 2021 / Accepted: 11 June 2021 / Published: 14 June 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Hydraulic Dynamic Calculation and Simulation Ⅱ)
To explore the characteristics of overland flow resistance under the condition of sparse vegetative stem coverage and improve the basic theoretical research of overland flow, the resistance characteristics of overland flow were systematically investigated under four slope gradients (S), seven flow discharges (Q), and six degrees of vegetation coverage (Cr). The results show that the Manning roughness coefficient (n) changes with the ratio of water depth to vegetation height (h/hv) while the Reynolds number (Re), Froude number (Fr), and slope (S) are closely related to vegetation coverage. Meanwhile, h/hv, Re, and Cr have strong positive correlations with n, while Fr and S have strong negative correlations with n. Through data regression analysis, a power function relationship between n and hydraulic parameters was observed and sensitivity analysis was performed. It was concluded that the relationship between n and h/hv, Re, Cr, Q, and S shows the same law; in particular, for sparse stem vegetation coverage, Cr is the dominant factor affecting overland flow resistance under zero slope condition, while Cr is no longer the first dominant factor affecting overland flow resistance under non-zero slope condition. In the relationship between n and Fr, Cr has the least effect on overland flow resistance. This indicates that when Manning roughness coefficient is correlated with different hydraulic parameters, the same vegetation coverage has different effects on overland flow resistance. Therefore, it is necessary to study overland flow resistance under the condition of sparse stalk vegetation coverage. View Full-Text
Keywords: overland flow; sparse vegetation; vegetation coverage; resistance law; sensitivity analysis overland flow; sparse vegetation; vegetation coverage; resistance law; sensitivity analysis
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MDPI and ACS Style

Zhang, J.; Zhang, S.; Chen, S.; Liu, M.; Xu, X.; Zhou, J.; Wang, W.; Ma, L.; Wang, C. Overland Flow Resistance Law under Sparse Stem Vegetation Coverage. Water 2021, 13, 1657. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13121657

AMA Style

Zhang J, Zhang S, Chen S, Liu M, Xu X, Zhou J, Wang W, Ma L, Wang C. Overland Flow Resistance Law under Sparse Stem Vegetation Coverage. Water. 2021; 13(12):1657. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13121657

Chicago/Turabian Style

Zhang, Jingzhou, Shengtang Zhang, Si Chen, Ming Liu, Xuefeng Xu, Jiansen Zhou, Wenjun Wang, Lijun Ma, and Chuantao Wang. 2021. "Overland Flow Resistance Law under Sparse Stem Vegetation Coverage" Water 13, no. 12: 1657. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13121657

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