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Air–Water Properties in Rectangular Free-Falling Jets

[email protected] Group, Department of Mining and Civil Engineering, Universidad Politécnica de Cartagena, 30203 Cartagena, Spain
Civil and Environmental Engineering Department, Escuela Politécnica Nacional, Quito 170517, Ecuador
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Jorge Matos, Sebastien Erpicum and Anton J. Schleiss
Water 2021, 13(11), 1593;
Received: 16 April 2021 / Revised: 1 June 2021 / Accepted: 3 June 2021 / Published: 5 June 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Spillway Hydraulics: From Theory to Practice)
This study analyzes the air–water flow properties in overflow nappe jets. Data were measured in several cross-sections of rectangular free-falling jets downstream of a sharp-crested weir, with a maximum fall distance of 2.0 m. The flow properties were obtained using a conductivity phase-detection probe. Furthermore, a back-flushing Pitot-Prandtl probe was used in order to obtain the velocity profiles. Five specific flows rates were analyzed, from 0.024 to 0.096 m3/s/m. The measurements of the air–water flow allowed us to characterize the increment of the air entrainment during the fall, affecting the flow characteristic distributions, reducing the non-aerated water inner core, and increasing the lateral spread, thereby leading to changes in the jet thickness. The results showed slight differences between the upper and lower nappe trajectories. The experimental data of the jet thickness related to a local void fraction of 50% seemed to be similar to the jet thickness due only to gravitational effects until the break-up length was reached. The amount of energy tended to remain constant until the falling distance was over 15 times greater than the total energy head over the weir crest, a distance at which the entrained air affected the entire cross-section, and the non-aerated core tended to disappear. The new experiments related with air–water properties in free-falling jets allow us to improve the current knowledge of turbulent rectangular jets. View Full-Text
Keywords: air entrainment; air–water flow; conductivity phase-detection probe; free-falling jets air entrainment; air–water flow; conductivity phase-detection probe; free-falling jets
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MDPI and ACS Style

Carrillo, J.M.; Ortega, P.R.; Castillo, L.G.; García, J.T. Air–Water Properties in Rectangular Free-Falling Jets. Water 2021, 13, 1593.

AMA Style

Carrillo JM, Ortega PR, Castillo LG, García JT. Air–Water Properties in Rectangular Free-Falling Jets. Water. 2021; 13(11):1593.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Carrillo, José M., Patricio R. Ortega, Luis G. Castillo, and Juan T. García 2021. "Air–Water Properties in Rectangular Free-Falling Jets" Water 13, no. 11: 1593.

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