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Article

The Variation of Water Quality in Three Land Use Types in U Minh Ha National Park, Ca Mau Province, Vietnam Using Multivariate Statistical Approaches

College of Environment and Natural Resources, Can Tho University, Can Tho 900000, Vietnam
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Academic Editor: Per-Erik Mellander
Water 2021, 13(11), 1501; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13111501
Received: 19 April 2021 / Revised: 22 May 2021 / Accepted: 25 May 2021 / Published: 27 May 2021
(This article belongs to the Section Water Quality and Contamination)
This study was conducted to assess the water quality affected by different land use patterns in U Minh Ha National Park, Ca Mau, Vietnam. This study determined the water quality characteristics in three land use types (Acacia hybrid, planted melaleuca cajuputi, and natural melaleuca cajuputi) at different plant ages on two acid sulfate soil layers in the rainy season (8/2018) and dry season (4/2019) using nine water quality parameters. Multivariate statistical analyses were applied to evaluate the correlation and spatial and temporal variations in the water quality. The study results showed that the water quality in S-ASS was more polluted than that in D-ASS, characterized by low pH; the EC, organic matters (BOD and COD), nutrients (N-NH4+ and N-NO3), and metal ions (Al3+ and Fe3+) were high; and the EC, BOD, COD, Al3+, and N-NO3 were determined high in D-ASS. The NMC area was noted to have high concentrations of organic matters and nutrients, while the factors specific to acidic soil were found to be higher in the AH and PMC areas. The water quality in the rainy season tended to be more polluted than that in the dry season. The cluster analysis grouped the land use patterns on S-ASS and D-ASS in both seasons into four groups, with a clear similarity between the wet and dry seasons in the areas at various plant ages. The seasonal variations of the water quality of the three land use types were distinguished by the main parameters, including pH, EC, BOD, N-NO3, and Al3+ (S-ASS) and EC, BOD, N-NO3, N-NH4+, and Fe3+ (D-ASS). Therefore, there is a need for better water management measures in the rainy season and focus on the key parameters causing water quality variations in each area. The findings in this study provided important information for the future water quality monitoring for both agricultural production and conservation in the national park. View Full-Text
Keywords: Acacia hybrid; Melaleuca cajuputi; temporal variation; U Minh Ha; water quality Acacia hybrid; Melaleuca cajuputi; temporal variation; U Minh Ha; water quality
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MDPI and ACS Style

Le, V.D.; Nguyen, T.G.; Truong, H.D. The Variation of Water Quality in Three Land Use Types in U Minh Ha National Park, Ca Mau Province, Vietnam Using Multivariate Statistical Approaches. Water 2021, 13, 1501. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13111501

AMA Style

Le VD, Nguyen TG, Truong HD. The Variation of Water Quality in Three Land Use Types in U Minh Ha National Park, Ca Mau Province, Vietnam Using Multivariate Statistical Approaches. Water. 2021; 13(11):1501. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13111501

Chicago/Turabian Style

Le, Van D., Thanh G. Nguyen, and Hoang D. Truong 2021. "The Variation of Water Quality in Three Land Use Types in U Minh Ha National Park, Ca Mau Province, Vietnam Using Multivariate Statistical Approaches" Water 13, no. 11: 1501. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13111501

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