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Article

Understanding Microbial Loads in Wastewater Treatment Works as Source Water for Water Reuse

1
Center for Environmental Solutions and Emergency Response, Office of Research and Development, United States Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, OH 45268, USA
2
Center for Environmental Measurement and Modeling, Office of Research and Development, United States Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, OH 45268, USA
3
United States Environmental Protection Agency, Region 6, Dallas, TX 75270, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Andreas N. Angelakis
Water 2021, 13(11), 1452; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13111452
Received: 16 April 2021 / Revised: 17 May 2021 / Accepted: 19 May 2021 / Published: 21 May 2021
Facing challenges in water demands and population size, particularly in the water-scarce regions in the United States, the reuse of treated municipal wastewater has become a viable potential to relieve the ever-increasing demands of providing water for (non-)potable use. The objectives of this study were to assess microbial quality of reclaimed water and to investigate treatability of microorganisms during different treatment processes. Raw and final treated effluent samples from three participating utilities were collected monthly for 16 months and analyzed for various microbial pathogens and fecal indicator organisms. Results revealed that the detectable levels of microbial pathogens tested were observed in the treated effluent samples from all participating utilities. Log10 reduction values (LRVs) of Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia cysts were at least two orders of magnitude lower than those of human adenovirus and all fecal indicator organisms except for aerobic endospores, which showed the lowest LRVs. The relatively higher LRV of the indicator organisms such as bacteriophages suggested that these microorganisms are not good candidates of viral indicators of human adenovirus during wastewater treatment processes. Overall, this study will assist municipalities considering the use of wastewater effluent as another source of drinking water by providing important data on the prevalence, occurrence, and reduction of waterborne pathogens in wastewater. More importantly, the results from this study will aid in building a richer microbial occurrence database that can be used towards evaluating reuse guidelines and disinfection practices for water reuse practices. View Full-Text
Keywords: water reuse; microbial loads; waterborne pathogens; indicators water reuse; microbial loads; waterborne pathogens; indicators
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MDPI and ACS Style

Ryu, H.; Addor, Y.; Brinkman, N.E.; Ware, M.W.; Boczek, L.; Hoelle, J.; Mistry, J.H.; Keely, S.P.; Villegas, E.N. Understanding Microbial Loads in Wastewater Treatment Works as Source Water for Water Reuse. Water 2021, 13, 1452. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13111452

AMA Style

Ryu H, Addor Y, Brinkman NE, Ware MW, Boczek L, Hoelle J, Mistry JH, Keely SP, Villegas EN. Understanding Microbial Loads in Wastewater Treatment Works as Source Water for Water Reuse. Water. 2021; 13(11):1452. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13111452

Chicago/Turabian Style

Ryu, Hodon, Yao Addor, Nichole E. Brinkman, Michael W. Ware, Laura Boczek, Jill Hoelle, Jatin H. Mistry, Scott P. Keely, and Eric N. Villegas 2021. "Understanding Microbial Loads in Wastewater Treatment Works as Source Water for Water Reuse" Water 13, no. 11: 1452. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13111452

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