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Article

Daily Fluctuations in the Isotope and Elemental Composition of Tap Water in Ljubljana, Slovenia

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Department of Environmental Sciences, Jožef Stefan Institute, Jamova Cesta 39, SI-1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia
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Jožef Stefan International Postgraduate School, Jamova Cesta 39, SI-1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia
3
JP VOKA SNAGA d.o.o., Vodovodna Cesta 90, SI-1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Daniel D. Snow
Water 2021, 13(11), 1451; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13111451
Received: 23 April 2021 / Revised: 14 May 2021 / Accepted: 17 May 2021 / Published: 21 May 2021
(This article belongs to the Section Urban Water Management)
The isotope and elemental composition of tap water reflects its multiple distinct inputs and provides a link between infrastructure and the environment over a range of scales. For example, on a local scale, they can be helpful in understanding the geological, hydrogeological, and hydrological conditions and monitor the proper functioning of the water supply system (WSS). However, despite this, studies examining the urban water system remain limited. This study sought to address this knowledge gap by performing a 24 h multiparameter analysis of tap water extracted from a region where the mixing of groundwater between two recharge areas occurs. This work included measurements of temperature and electrical conductivity, as well as pH, δ2H, δ18O, d, δ13CDIC, and 87Sr/86Sr ratios and major and trace elements at hourly intervals over a 24 h period. Although the data show only slight variations in the measured parameters, four groups were distinguishable using visual grouping, and multivariate analysis (Spearman correlation coefficient analysis, hierarchical cluster analysis, and principal components analysis). Finally, changes in the mixing ratios of the two sources were estimated using a linear mixing model. The results confirm that the relative contribution from each source varied considerably over 24 h. View Full-Text
Keywords: tap water; stable isotopes; hydrogen; oxygen; carbon; multi-elemental analysis; 87Sr/86Sr ratio; mixing model; Ljubljana; Slovenia tap water; stable isotopes; hydrogen; oxygen; carbon; multi-elemental analysis; 87Sr/86Sr ratio; mixing model; Ljubljana; Slovenia
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MDPI and ACS Style

Nagode, K.; Kanduč, T.; Zuliani, T.; Bračič Železnik, B.; Jamnik, B.; Vreča, P. Daily Fluctuations in the Isotope and Elemental Composition of Tap Water in Ljubljana, Slovenia. Water 2021, 13, 1451. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13111451

AMA Style

Nagode K, Kanduč T, Zuliani T, Bračič Železnik B, Jamnik B, Vreča P. Daily Fluctuations in the Isotope and Elemental Composition of Tap Water in Ljubljana, Slovenia. Water. 2021; 13(11):1451. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13111451

Chicago/Turabian Style

Nagode, Klara, Tjaša Kanduč, Tea Zuliani, Branka Bračič Železnik, Brigita Jamnik, and Polona Vreča. 2021. "Daily Fluctuations in the Isotope and Elemental Composition of Tap Water in Ljubljana, Slovenia" Water 13, no. 11: 1451. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13111451

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