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Article

Groundwater Modelling in Urban Development to Achieve Sustainability of Groundwater Resources: A Case Study of Semarang City, Indonesia

1
Department of Hydraulic and Ocean Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, No. 1 University Road, Tainan 701, Taiwan
2
Civil Engineering Department, Universitas Jenderal Soedirman, Jl. HR Bunyamin, Purwokerto 53122, Indonesia
3
Research Center for Geotechnology, Indonesian Institute of Sciences (LIPI), Jl. Cisitu, Sangkuriang Bandung 40135, Indonesia
4
Potential Analysis of Groundwater, Bureau of Energy and Mineral Resources of Central Java Province, Jl. Madukoro AA-BB No. 44, Semarang 50144, Indonesia
5
Geological Engineering Department, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Jl. Grafika Bulaksumur No. 2, Yogyakarta 55284, Indonesia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Maurizio Polemio and Konstantinos Voudoris
Water 2021, 13(10), 1395; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13101395
Received: 25 March 2021 / Revised: 10 May 2021 / Accepted: 13 May 2021 / Published: 17 May 2021
Since 1900, Semarang City has been meeting its industrial water needs by pumping groundwater through its underlying aquifers. The trend toward exploiting groundwater resources has driven the number of deep wells and their production capacity to increase, and therefore leads to the water table to drop from time to time, which has been marked as one of the primary causes of land subsidence there. The main aim of the current study was to numerically model the temporal and spatial evolution of groundwater table under excess abstraction so that a groundwater management strategy can be accordingly drawn up for ensuing the sustainability of groundwater resources in the future. A series of numerical simulations were carried out to take into account hydrogeological data, artificial and natural discharges of deep wells, and boundary effects in Semarang City. The groundwater modeling is calibrated under two flow conditions of the steady state from 1970 to 1990 and the transient state from 1990 to 2005 for six observation wells distributed in Semarang City. Four scenarios that reflect potential management strategies were developed, and then their effectiveness was systematically investigated. The results of our study indicate that the implementation of proper groundwater control management and measure is able to restore the groundwater level to rise back in Semarang City, and in turn achieve the sustainability of groundwater resources. View Full-Text
Keywords: groundwater modeling; groundwater level; groundwater management groundwater modeling; groundwater level; groundwater management
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MDPI and ACS Style

Lo, W.; Purnomo, S.N.; Sarah, D.; Aghnia, S.; Hardini, P. Groundwater Modelling in Urban Development to Achieve Sustainability of Groundwater Resources: A Case Study of Semarang City, Indonesia. Water 2021, 13, 1395. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13101395

AMA Style

Lo W, Purnomo SN, Sarah D, Aghnia S, Hardini P. Groundwater Modelling in Urban Development to Achieve Sustainability of Groundwater Resources: A Case Study of Semarang City, Indonesia. Water. 2021; 13(10):1395. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13101395

Chicago/Turabian Style

Lo, Weicheng, Sanidhya N. Purnomo, Dwi Sarah, Sokhwatul Aghnia, and Probo Hardini. 2021. "Groundwater Modelling in Urban Development to Achieve Sustainability of Groundwater Resources: A Case Study of Semarang City, Indonesia" Water 13, no. 10: 1395. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13101395

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