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Article

The Influence of Hydropower and Coal Consumption on Greenhouse Gas Emissions: A Comparison between China and India

by 1 and 2,3,*
1
Department of Economics, Osmaniye Korkut Ata University, Osmaniye 80000, Turkey
2
School of Hydrology and Water Resources, Nanjing University of Information Science and Technology, Nanjing 210044, China
3
Department of Hydro and Renewable Energy, Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee, Uttarakhand 247667, India
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Helena M. Ramos
Water 2021, 13(10), 1387; https://doi.org/10.3390/w13101387
Received: 21 April 2021 / Revised: 10 May 2021 / Accepted: 14 May 2021 / Published: 16 May 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Greenhouse Gas Emission from Freshwater Ecosystem)
This study mainly aims to investigate carbon status according to the Pollution Haven Hypothesis (PHH) in developing countries such as India and China based on annual time series data from 1980 to 2016. The recently developed bootstrap autoregressive distributed lag procedure is applied to observe the long-run effect of FDI, hydropower, and coal-based fossil fuel consumption on three repressive measures of carbon emissions. The empirical results of the analysis show that hydropower and coal consumption lead to an upsurge in carbon emissions and the size of the carbon footprint in China. Similarly, Chinese FDI increases the carbon footprint. Moreover, Indian FDI and coal consumption accelerate carbon emissions while hydropower has no impact on environmental degradation. These results suggest that the PHH exists in China and India and that the validity of the PHH varies according to differing carbon indicators. Based on the empirical results, effective policy practices can be implemented by replacing coal and hydropower with more effective renewable energy sources and allowing foreign investors to pursue environmental concerns in the fight against environmental degradation. View Full-Text
Keywords: hydropower; coal consumption; PHH; CO2 emissions; carbon footprint hydropower; coal consumption; PHH; CO2 emissions; carbon footprint
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MDPI and ACS Style

Pata, U.K.; Kumar, A. The Influence of Hydropower and Coal Consumption on Greenhouse Gas Emissions: A Comparison between China and India. Water 2021, 13, 1387. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13101387

AMA Style

Pata UK, Kumar A. The Influence of Hydropower and Coal Consumption on Greenhouse Gas Emissions: A Comparison between China and India. Water. 2021; 13(10):1387. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13101387

Chicago/Turabian Style

Pata, Ugur K., and Amit Kumar. 2021. "The Influence of Hydropower and Coal Consumption on Greenhouse Gas Emissions: A Comparison between China and India" Water 13, no. 10: 1387. https://doi.org/10.3390/w13101387

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