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A Simple Empirical Band-Ratio Algorithm to Assess Suspended Particulate Matter from Remote Sensing over Coastal and Inland Waters of Vietnam: Application to the VNREDSat-1/NAOMI Sensor

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Vietnam Academy of Science and Technology, Space Technology Institute, 18 Hoang Quoc Viet, Cau Giay, Hanoi 100000, Vietnam
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Laboratoire d’Océanologie et de Géosciences, Univ. Littoral Côte d’Opale, Univ. Lille, CNRS, UMR 8187, LOG, F 59000 Lille, France
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LOTUS, Vietnam Academy of Science and Technology, University of Science and Technology of Hanoi, 18 Hoang Quoc Viet, Cau Giay, Hanoi 100000, Vietnam
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Viet Nam Academy of Science and Technology, Institute of Mechanics, 264 Doi Can, Ba Dinh, Hanoi 100000, Vietnam
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Institute of Techniques for Special Engineering, Le Quy Don University, 236 Hoang Quoc Viet, Bac Tu Liem, Hanoi 100000, Vietnam
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Vietnam Academy of Science and Technology, Institute of Marine Environment and Resources, 246 Da Nang, Ngo Quyen, Haiphong 180000, Vietnam
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Water 2020, 12(9), 2636; https://doi.org/10.3390/w12092636
Received: 30 July 2020 / Revised: 4 September 2020 / Accepted: 16 September 2020 / Published: 21 September 2020
(This article belongs to the Section Oceans and Coastal Zones)
VNREDSat-1 is the first Vietnamese satellite enabling the survey of environmental parameters, such as vegetation and water coverages or surface water quality at medium spatial resolution (from 2.5 to 10 m depending on the considered channel). The New AstroSat Optical Modular Instrument (NAOMI) sensor on board VNREDSat-1 has the required spectral bands to assess the suspended particulate matter (SPM) concentration. Because recent studies have shown that the remote sensing reflectance, Rrs(λ), at the blue (450–520 nm), green (530–600 nm), and red (620–690 nm) spectral bands can be assessed using NAOMI with good accuracy, the present study is dedicated to the development and validation of an algorithm (hereafter referred to as V1SPM) to assess SPM from Rrs(λ) over inland and coastal waters of Vietnam. For that purpose, an in-situ data set of hyper-spectral Rrs(λ) and SPM (from 0.47 to 240.14 g·m−3) measurements collected at 205 coastal and inland stations has been gathered. Among the different approaches, including four historical algorithms, the polynomial algorithms involving the red-to-green reflectance ratio presents the best performance on the validation data set (mean absolute percent difference (MAPD) of 18.7%). Compared to the use of a single spectral band, the band ratio reduces the scatter around the polynomial fit, as well as the impact of imperfect atmospheric corrections. Due to the lack of matchup data points with VNREDSat-1, the full VNREDSat-1 processing chain (atmospheric correction (RED-NIR) and V1SPM), aiming at estimating SPM from the top-of-atmosphere signal, was applied to the Landsat-8/OLI match-up data points with relatively low to moderate SPM concentration (3.33–15.25 g·m−3), yielding a MAPD of 15.8%. An illustration of the use of this VNREDSat-1 processing chain during a flooding event occurring in Vietnam is provided. View Full-Text
Keywords: VNREDSat-1/NAOMI; Landsat-8/OLI; suspended particulate matter; algorithm VNREDSat-1/NAOMI; Landsat-8/OLI; suspended particulate matter; algorithm
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MDPI and ACS Style

Ngoc, D.D.; Loisel, H.; Vantrepotte, V.; Chu Xuan, H.; Nguyen Minh, N.; Verpoorter, C.; Meriaux, X.; Pham Thi Minh, H.; Le Thi, H.; Le Vu Hong, H.; Nguyen Van, T. A Simple Empirical Band-Ratio Algorithm to Assess Suspended Particulate Matter from Remote Sensing over Coastal and Inland Waters of Vietnam: Application to the VNREDSat-1/NAOMI Sensor. Water 2020, 12, 2636. https://doi.org/10.3390/w12092636

AMA Style

Ngoc DD, Loisel H, Vantrepotte V, Chu Xuan H, Nguyen Minh N, Verpoorter C, Meriaux X, Pham Thi Minh H, Le Thi H, Le Vu Hong H, Nguyen Van T. A Simple Empirical Band-Ratio Algorithm to Assess Suspended Particulate Matter from Remote Sensing over Coastal and Inland Waters of Vietnam: Application to the VNREDSat-1/NAOMI Sensor. Water. 2020; 12(9):2636. https://doi.org/10.3390/w12092636

Chicago/Turabian Style

Ngoc, Dat D., Hubert Loisel, Vincent Vantrepotte, Huy Chu Xuan, Ngoc Nguyen Minh, Charles Verpoorter, Xavier Meriaux, Hanh Pham Thi Minh, Huong Le Thi, Hai Le Vu Hong, and Thao Nguyen Van. 2020. "A Simple Empirical Band-Ratio Algorithm to Assess Suspended Particulate Matter from Remote Sensing over Coastal and Inland Waters of Vietnam: Application to the VNREDSat-1/NAOMI Sensor" Water 12, no. 9: 2636. https://doi.org/10.3390/w12092636

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