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Article

Characterization of Bottled Waters by Multielemental Analysis, Stable and Radiogenic Isotopes

1
Department of Environmental Sciences, Jožef Stefan Institute, Jamova cesta 39, SI-1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia
2
Jožef Stefan International Postgraduate School, Jamova cesta 39, SI-1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Water 2020, 12(9), 2454; https://doi.org/10.3390/w12092454
Received: 24 July 2020 / Revised: 24 August 2020 / Accepted: 27 August 2020 / Published: 31 August 2020
(This article belongs to the Section Water and One Health)
Multi-elemental (Ca, Mg, Na, K, Al, As, Ba, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Li, Mn, Mo, Ni, P, Pb, Sb, Se, Tl, V, and Zn) and stable isotope (i.e., δ2H, δ18O, and δ13CDIC) analyses were performed on 13 (8 Slovenian and 5 imported) bottled mineral and spring waters from the Slovenian market. In addition, 87Sr/86Sr isotope ratios were determined for the first time. In all analyzed bottled waters, the majority of elements were present although in low concentrations, and according to EU legislation, all were suitable for human consumption. Also, concentrations of major elements (Ca, Mg, Na, and K) were in general agreement with the values reported on the bottle labels, and any differences were the consequence of the natural variability of the water source used for bottling. The exception was one spring water, for which the source location changed, which was confirmed by the δ2H, δ18O, and δ13CDIC data. Two mineral waters had distinctive elemental compositions due to the particular geology of their recharge areas. The δ13CDIC was also investigated to decipher the carbonate contribution in the bottled waters. The results suggest that dissolution of carbonates and non-equilibrium carbonate dissolution by carbonic acid produced from soil zone CO2 are the predominant geochemical processes influencing the δ13CDIC values of bottled water. View Full-Text
Keywords: bottled waters; multielemental analysis; 87Sr/86Sr; δ2H; δ18O; δ13CDIC; water quality; Slovenian market bottled waters; multielemental analysis; 87Sr/86Sr; δ2H; δ18O; δ13CDIC; water quality; Slovenian market
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MDPI and ACS Style

Zuliani, T.; Kanduč, T.; Novak, R.; Vreča, P. Characterization of Bottled Waters by Multielemental Analysis, Stable and Radiogenic Isotopes. Water 2020, 12, 2454. https://doi.org/10.3390/w12092454

AMA Style

Zuliani T, Kanduč T, Novak R, Vreča P. Characterization of Bottled Waters by Multielemental Analysis, Stable and Radiogenic Isotopes. Water. 2020; 12(9):2454. https://doi.org/10.3390/w12092454

Chicago/Turabian Style

Zuliani, Tea, Tjaša Kanduč, Rok Novak, and Polona Vreča. 2020. "Characterization of Bottled Waters by Multielemental Analysis, Stable and Radiogenic Isotopes" Water 12, no. 9: 2454. https://doi.org/10.3390/w12092454

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