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Enhancing Nitrogen and Phosphorus Removal by Applying Effective Microorganisms to Constructed Wetlands

1
State Key Laboratory of Hydrology-Water Resources and Hydraulic Engineering, Nanjing Hydraulic Research Institute, Nanjing 210029, China
2
Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Rutgers University-New Brunswick, Piscataway, NJ 08854, USA
3
State Key Laboratory of Hydrology-Water Resources and Hydraulic Engineering, Hohai University, Nanjing 210098, China
4
College of Agricultural Science and Engineering, Hohai University, Nanjing 210098, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Water 2020, 12(9), 2443; https://doi.org/10.3390/w12092443
Received: 9 July 2020 / Revised: 26 August 2020 / Accepted: 27 August 2020 / Published: 31 August 2020
(This article belongs to the Section Wastewater Treatment and Reuse)
Rainfall occurs frequently in South China and results in recurring of drainage/discharge of nitrogen and phosphorus-rich water from paddy fields, which may cause serious non-point source pollution of receiving waters such as rivers. Moreover, time intervals between individual rainfall events are short (often only several days). Thus, not only is the treatment of discharge water needed, but a more rapid form of treatment is desired as well. On the basis of the literature, constructed wetlands could remove nitrogen and phosphorous from paddy field drainage/outflow, and effective microorganisms (EM) could also be added to enhance the removals. A field experiment was conducted to demonstrate the wetland effectiveness and EM enhancement. The experiment was conducted from June to October in 2016. By applying EM to constructed wetlands, after 8 days, concentrations of total nitrogen (TN), ammonium nitrogen (NH4 +-N), nitrate nitrogen (NO3 -N), and total phosphorus (TP) were reduced by 88%, 91%, 89%, and 50%, respectively. Within the first 4 days, TN and TP concentrations were reduced by 78% and 40%, respectively, with EM application, in comparison to 50% and 20%, respectively, without EM application, representing additional respective reductions of 28% and 20% by applying EM. The results from the field experiment indicated a significant improvement of phosphorus and nitrogen removals by applying effective microorganisms. View Full-Text
Keywords: effective microorganisms; constructed wetlands; nitrogen and phosphorus removal; paddy field drainage; stormwater treatment effective microorganisms; constructed wetlands; nitrogen and phosphorus removal; paddy field drainage; stormwater treatment
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MDPI and ACS Style

Li, X.; Guo, Q.; Wang, Y.; Xu, J.; Wei, Q.; Chen, L.; Liao, L. Enhancing Nitrogen and Phosphorus Removal by Applying Effective Microorganisms to Constructed Wetlands. Water 2020, 12, 2443. https://doi.org/10.3390/w12092443

AMA Style

Li X, Guo Q, Wang Y, Xu J, Wei Q, Chen L, Liao L. Enhancing Nitrogen and Phosphorus Removal by Applying Effective Microorganisms to Constructed Wetlands. Water. 2020; 12(9):2443. https://doi.org/10.3390/w12092443

Chicago/Turabian Style

Li, Xiaotian, Qizhong Guo, Yintang Wang, Junzeng Xu, Qi Wei, Lina Chen, and Linxian Liao. 2020. "Enhancing Nitrogen and Phosphorus Removal by Applying Effective Microorganisms to Constructed Wetlands" Water 12, no. 9: 2443. https://doi.org/10.3390/w12092443

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