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Review

What’s in a Name? Patterns, Trends, and Suggestions for Defining Non-Perennial Rivers and Streams

1
Department of Biology, University of Oklahoma, Norman, OK 73072, USA
2
School of Geosciences, University of Louisiana, Lafayette, LA 70504, USA
3
Office of Research and Development, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Cincinnati, OH 45220, USA
4
INRAE, UR RiverLY, Centre Lyon-Villeurbanne, CEDEX 69100 Villeurbanne, France
5
College of Arts and Sciences and RENEW Institute, University at Buffalo, Buffalo, NY 14228, USA
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Department of Ecosystem Science and Sustainability, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80526, USA
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Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064, USA
8
School of Aquatic and Fishery Sciences, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98105, USA
9
School of Ecosystem and Forest Sciences, The University of Melbourne, Burnley, VIC 3010, Australia
10
Melbourne Water, Docklands 3005, VIC 3008, Australia
11
Division of Biology, Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS 66506, USA
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Department of Biology, University of San Diego, San Diego, CA 92110, USA
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College of Science and Engineering, Flinders University, Adelaide 5042, Australia
14
Ecosystem Science and Sustainability, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80526, USA
15
Department of Biological Sciences, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA 24060, USA
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School of Natural Resources and the Environment, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721, USA
17
O’Neill School of Public and Environmental Affairs, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN 47405, USA
18
CAPES Foundation, Ministry of Education of Brazil, Brasilia 70297, Brazil
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Department of Geosciences, Idaho State University, Pocatello, ID 83209, USA
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Department of Geography, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX 77843, USA
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Department of Natural Resources and Environmental Science, University of Nevada, Reno, NV 89557, USA
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Department of Biological Science, University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, AL 35401, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Now at U.S. Geological Survey, MD-DE-DC Water Science Center, Catonsville, MD 21228, USA.
Water 2020, 12(7), 1980; https://doi.org/10.3390/w12071980
Received: 29 May 2020 / Revised: 3 July 2020 / Accepted: 7 July 2020 / Published: 13 July 2020
Rivers that cease to flow are globally prevalent. Although many epithets have been used for these rivers, a consensus on terminology has not yet been reached. Doing so would facilitate a marked increase in interdisciplinary interest as well as critical need for clear regulations. Here we reviewed literature from Web of Science database searches of 12 epithets to learn (Objective 1—O1) if epithet topics are consistent across Web of Science categories using latent Dirichlet allocation topic modeling. We also analyzed publication rates and topics over time to (O2) assess changes in epithet use. We compiled literature definitions to (O3) identify how epithets have been delineated and, lastly, suggest universal terms and definitions. We found a lack of consensus in epithet use between and among various fields. We also found that epithet usage has changed over time, as research focus has shifted from description to modeling. We conclude that multiple epithets are redundant. We offer specific definitions for three epithets (non-perennial, intermittent, and ephemeral) to guide consensus on epithet use. Limiting the number of epithets used in non-perennial river research can facilitate more effective communication among research fields and provide clear guidelines for writing regulatory documents. View Full-Text
Keywords: non-perennial; intermittent; ephemeral; temporary; stream; river; literature review; latent Dirichlet allocation; text mining; synthesis non-perennial; intermittent; ephemeral; temporary; stream; river; literature review; latent Dirichlet allocation; text mining; synthesis
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Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Busch, M.H.; Costigan, K.H.; Fritz, K.M.; Datry, T.; Krabbenhoft, C.A.; Hammond, J.C.; Zimmer, M.; Olden, J.D.; Burrows, R.M.; Dodds, W.K.; Boersma, K.S.; Shanafield, M.; Kampf, S.K.; Mims, M.C.; Bogan, M.T.; Ward, A.S.; Perez Rocha, M.; Godsey, S.; Allen, G.H.; Blaszczak, J.R.; Jones, C.N.; Allen, D.C. What’s in a Name? Patterns, Trends, and Suggestions for Defining Non-Perennial Rivers and Streams. Water 2020, 12, 1980. https://doi.org/10.3390/w12071980

AMA Style

Busch MH, Costigan KH, Fritz KM, Datry T, Krabbenhoft CA, Hammond JC, Zimmer M, Olden JD, Burrows RM, Dodds WK, Boersma KS, Shanafield M, Kampf SK, Mims MC, Bogan MT, Ward AS, Perez Rocha M, Godsey S, Allen GH, Blaszczak JR, Jones CN, Allen DC. What’s in a Name? Patterns, Trends, and Suggestions for Defining Non-Perennial Rivers and Streams. Water. 2020; 12(7):1980. https://doi.org/10.3390/w12071980

Chicago/Turabian Style

Busch, Michelle H.; Costigan, Katie H.; Fritz, Ken M.; Datry, Thibault; Krabbenhoft, Corey A.; Hammond, John C.; Zimmer, Margaret; Olden, Julian D.; Burrows, Ryan M.; Dodds, Walter K.; Boersma, Kate S.; Shanafield, Margaret; Kampf, Stephanie K.; Mims, Meryl C.; Bogan, Michael T.; Ward, Adam S.; Perez Rocha, Mariana; Godsey, Sarah; Allen, George H.; Blaszczak, Joanna R.; Jones, C. N.; Allen, Daniel C. 2020. "What’s in a Name? Patterns, Trends, and Suggestions for Defining Non-Perennial Rivers and Streams" Water 12, no. 7: 1980. https://doi.org/10.3390/w12071980

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