Rivers and their floodplains offer a wide variety of habitats for invertebrates. River ecosystems are subject to high anthropic influence: as a result the channel morphology is changed, swamps are drained, floodplains are built up, and rivers are polluted. All this has radically changed the environment for the inhabitants of the floodplains, including riparian stenotopic species. Although riparian arthropods are oriented primarily to the production of hydro-ecosystems, the type of water body—lentic or lotic—has a determining effect in the structure of communities. Most riparian arthropods have evolutionarily adapted to riverbanks with significant areas of open alluvial banks. This paper considered the structure of assemblages of ground beetles associated with the riverbanks and the shores of floodplain lakes and their differences. The banks of rivers and the shores of floodplain lakes were considered separately due to the differences in the habitats associated with them. Our results showed that riverbanks, which experience significant pollution, were actively colonized by vegetation and were unsuitable for most riparian ground beetles. The shores of floodplain lakes, being an optional habitat for riparian arthropods, cannot serve as refugia. Thus, the transformation of floodplain landscapes and river pollution creates a problem for the biological diversity of floodplain ecosystems, since riparian stenotopic species of the riverbanks become rare and disappear.
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