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Article

Assessment of Future Water Demand and Supply under IPCC Climate Change and Socio-Economic Scenarios, Using a Combination of Models in Ourika Watershed, High Atlas, Morocco

1
Department of Environmental Sciences, Cadi Ayyad University, Marrakech 40-000, Morocco
2
National School of Architecture-Agadir, New University Complex, Marrakech 80-000, Morocco
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Water 2020, 12(6), 1751; https://doi.org/10.3390/w12061751
Received: 18 May 2020 / Revised: 13 June 2020 / Accepted: 15 June 2020 / Published: 19 June 2020
Climate change will affect the water resources system, on global and regional levels. Over the past thirty years, the High Atlas Mountains in Morocco have experienced severe droughts, which causes a decrease in water supply that affects both agriculture and the urban water system. In this paper, we assess the impact of climate change and socio-economic activities on water supply and demand in the Ourika watershed (High Atlas of Morocco), then we evaluate the efficiency and sustainability of regional adaptation strategies for water supply management. For this, we simulate and analyze the future water situation using the statistical downscaling model (SDSM) and the water assessment and planning tool (WEAP). After the model’s calibration and validation, the precipitation, minimum (Tmin) and maximum (Tmax) temperatures, water demand and unmet water demand were projected for 2100 horizon, using different climate change scenarios. The results revealed that the model’s performance, calibration and validation were found to be satisfactory. The analysis shows that the mean precipitation will decrease by 49.25% and 34.61% by 2100, under A2 and B2 emission scenarios of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). The projected mean Tmax and Tmin will be warmer than the baseline period, with Tmax increasing by 4.2 °C (A2) and 3.6 °C (B2), and Tmin by 3.5 °C (A2) and 2.9 °C (B2) by 2100. The results also show that water demand and the unmet water demand will increase in all scenarios, the pressure on water resources will increase, leading to water scarcity. The results reveal that, under the influence of climate change, future unmet water demand is expected to reach 64 million cubic meters (MCM) by 2100. The results demonstrate that the assessments of the proposed adaptation strategies are effective, but not sufficient to ensure water sustainability for the Ourika watershed. View Full-Text
Keywords: climate change; statistical downscaling; WEAP; water resources; adaptation strategies climate change; statistical downscaling; WEAP; water resources; adaptation strategies
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MDPI and ACS Style

Ayt Ougougdal, H.; Yacoubi Khebiza, M.; Messouli, M.; Lachir, A. Assessment of Future Water Demand and Supply under IPCC Climate Change and Socio-Economic Scenarios, Using a Combination of Models in Ourika Watershed, High Atlas, Morocco. Water 2020, 12, 1751. https://doi.org/10.3390/w12061751

AMA Style

Ayt Ougougdal H, Yacoubi Khebiza M, Messouli M, Lachir A. Assessment of Future Water Demand and Supply under IPCC Climate Change and Socio-Economic Scenarios, Using a Combination of Models in Ourika Watershed, High Atlas, Morocco. Water. 2020; 12(6):1751. https://doi.org/10.3390/w12061751

Chicago/Turabian Style

Ayt Ougougdal, Houssam, Mohamed Yacoubi Khebiza, Mohammed Messouli, and Asia Lachir. 2020. "Assessment of Future Water Demand and Supply under IPCC Climate Change and Socio-Economic Scenarios, Using a Combination of Models in Ourika Watershed, High Atlas, Morocco" Water 12, no. 6: 1751. https://doi.org/10.3390/w12061751

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