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Identifying Groundwater and River Water Interconnections Using Hydrochemistry, Stable Isotopes, and Statistical Methods in Hanumante River, Kathmandu Valley, Central Nepal

1
Central Department of Geology, Tribhuvan University, Kirtipur, Kathmandu 44613, Nepal
2
Interdisciplinary Centre for River Basin Environment (ICRE), University of Yamanashi, 4-4-37 Takeda, Kofu, Yamanashi 400-8511, Japan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Water 2020, 12(6), 1524; https://doi.org/10.3390/w12061524
Received: 24 April 2020 / Revised: 22 May 2020 / Accepted: 23 May 2020 / Published: 27 May 2020
(This article belongs to the Section Aquatic Systems—Quality and Contamination)
Interconnection between river water and groundwater plays an important role in maintaining water quantity and quality in hydrological systems. Furthermore, the exact interconnection is often difficult to observe and measure. This study attempts to explain river and shallow groundwater interconnection in urbanized areas of the Kathmandu Valley, Nepal. Isotopic (δD and δ18O) and chemical analyses were performed on river and groundwater samples, and the results were analyzed using statistical methods to identify areas of interconnection between river water and groundwater. Higher concentrations and positive strong correlations of Na+ with K+, NH4+-N, Cl, HCO3, and PO4-P, and a change of water type from Ca-HCO3 during the wet season to Na-K-HCO3 during the dry season indicate higher contamination in river water during the dry season. Hierarchical cluster analysis was used in grouping water samples into clusters on the basis of isotopic and chemical (Na+ and Cl) composition. Grouping of river and groundwater samples in one–one clusters from wet and dry seasons shows the presence of interconnection, indicating the contribution of river water in recharging shallow groundwater. These results imply that shallow groundwater found near rivers is chemically contaminated by polluted river water through bank infiltration, in both wet and dry seasons. View Full-Text
Keywords: stable isotopes; chemical ions; hierarchical cluster analysis; groundwater-river water interconnection; Hanumante River stable isotopes; chemical ions; hierarchical cluster analysis; groundwater-river water interconnection; Hanumante River
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MDPI and ACS Style

Bajracharya, R.; Nakamura, T.; Ghimire, S.; Man Shakya, B.; Kazi Tamrakar, N. Identifying Groundwater and River Water Interconnections Using Hydrochemistry, Stable Isotopes, and Statistical Methods in Hanumante River, Kathmandu Valley, Central Nepal. Water 2020, 12, 1524. https://doi.org/10.3390/w12061524

AMA Style

Bajracharya R, Nakamura T, Ghimire S, Man Shakya B, Kazi Tamrakar N. Identifying Groundwater and River Water Interconnections Using Hydrochemistry, Stable Isotopes, and Statistical Methods in Hanumante River, Kathmandu Valley, Central Nepal. Water. 2020; 12(6):1524. https://doi.org/10.3390/w12061524

Chicago/Turabian Style

Bajracharya, Ramita; Nakamura, Takashi; Ghimire, Subesh; Man Shakya, Bijay; Kazi Tamrakar, Naresh. 2020. "Identifying Groundwater and River Water Interconnections Using Hydrochemistry, Stable Isotopes, and Statistical Methods in Hanumante River, Kathmandu Valley, Central Nepal" Water 12, no. 6: 1524. https://doi.org/10.3390/w12061524

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