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The Wicked Problem the Water Framework Directive Cannot Solve. The Governance Approach in Dealing with Pollution of Nutrients in Surface Water in the Netherlands, Flanders, Lower Saxony, Denmark and Ireland
Open AccessReview

The Water Framework Directive and Agricultural Diffuse Pollution: Fighting a Running Battle?

1
Institute for Management Research, Department of Geography, Planning and Environment, Radboud University, 6500 HK Nijmegen, The Netherlands
2
Netherlands Environmental Assessment Agency (PBL), The Hague, The Netherlands & Institute for Management Research, Department of Geography, Planning and Environment, Radboud University, 6500 HK Nijmegen, The Netherlands
3
Centre for Research on Environmental and Social Change (CRESC), University of Antwerp, 2000 Antwerpen, Belgium
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Water 2020, 12(5), 1447; https://doi.org/10.3390/w12051447
Received: 20 March 2020 / Revised: 4 May 2020 / Accepted: 11 May 2020 / Published: 19 May 2020
In order to provide a common ground for the Special Issue ‘Water quality and agricultural diffuse pollution in light of the EU Water Framework Directive,’ this review sets out to provide a concise overview of the academic literature on two topics. First, we review the issues in the governance literature on the ‘wicked problem’ of diffuse agricultural sources focussing on three principles: (1) fragmentation and the distribution of power to address diffuse sources, (2) the problem of source-oriented and effect-oriented measures, and (3) contested knowledge for policies for diffuse sources. Second, we briefly sketch the literature on policy instruments and confront that with the scholarly understanding of addressing diffuse agricultural sources under the Water Framework Directive (WFD). View Full-Text
Keywords: diffuse pollution; Water Framework Directive; water governance; water quality; nutrients; policy integration; source-based measures; effect-based measures; science-policy interface; policy instruments diffuse pollution; Water Framework Directive; water governance; water quality; nutrients; policy integration; source-based measures; effect-based measures; science-policy interface; policy instruments
MDPI and ACS Style

Wiering, M.; Boezeman, D.; Crabbé, A. The Water Framework Directive and Agricultural Diffuse Pollution: Fighting a Running Battle? Water 2020, 12, 1447.

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