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Article

Evaluation of Common Supermarket Products as Positive Controls in Biochemical Methane Potential (BMP) Tests

1
Chair of Urban Water Systems Engineering, Technical University of Munich, Am Coulombwall 3, 85748 Garching, Germany
2
Hafner Consulting LLC, Reston, VA 20191, USA
3
Department of Chemical Engineering and Analytical Chemistry, University of Barcelona, C/Martí i Franquès 1, 08028 Barcelona, Spain
4
Advanced Water Management Centre, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, QLD 4072, Australia
5
Biochemical Conversion Department, Deutsches Biomasseforschungszentrum gemeinnützige GmbH, Torgauer Str. 116, 04347 Leipzig, Germany
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Water 2020, 12(5), 1223; https://doi.org/10.3390/w12051223
Received: 6 April 2020 / Revised: 20 April 2020 / Accepted: 21 April 2020 / Published: 25 April 2020
Biochemical methane potential (BMP) tests are commonly applied to evaluate the recoverable amount of methane from a substrate. Standardized protocols require inclusion of a positive control with a known BMP to check the experimental setup and execution, as well as the performance of the inoculum. Only if the BMP of the positive control is within the expected range is the entire test validated. Besides ignorance of this requirement, limited availability of the standard positive control microcrystalline cellulose might be the main reason for neglecting a positive control. To address this limitation, eight widely available grocery store products have been tested as alternative positive controls (APC) to demonstrate their suitability. Among them, Tic Tacs and gummi bears were very promising, although they are dominated by easily degradable sugars and so do not test for hydrolytic performance. Coffee filters exhibited a similar performance to microcrystalline cellulose, while whole milk might be chosen when a more balanced carbohydrate:protein:lipid ratio is important. Overall, the approach of predicting the BMP of a substrate based on the nutritional composition provided on the product packaging worked surprisingly well: BMP of the eight tested products was 81–91% of theoretical maximum BMP based on nutritional information and generic chemical formulas for carbohydrates, proteins, and lipids. View Full-Text
Keywords: anaerobic digestion; biochemical methane potential test; positive control; microcrystalline cellulose; validation of test setup and inoculum performance anaerobic digestion; biochemical methane potential test; positive control; microcrystalline cellulose; validation of test setup and inoculum performance
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MDPI and ACS Style

Koch, K.; Hafner, S.D.; Astals, S.; Weinrich, S. Evaluation of Common Supermarket Products as Positive Controls in Biochemical Methane Potential (BMP) Tests. Water 2020, 12, 1223. https://doi.org/10.3390/w12051223

AMA Style

Koch K, Hafner SD, Astals S, Weinrich S. Evaluation of Common Supermarket Products as Positive Controls in Biochemical Methane Potential (BMP) Tests. Water. 2020; 12(5):1223. https://doi.org/10.3390/w12051223

Chicago/Turabian Style

Koch, Konrad, Sasha D. Hafner, Sergi Astals, and Sören Weinrich. 2020. "Evaluation of Common Supermarket Products as Positive Controls in Biochemical Methane Potential (BMP) Tests" Water 12, no. 5: 1223. https://doi.org/10.3390/w12051223

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