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Open AccessArticle

Overview of the Chemical and Isotopic Investigations of the Mareza Springs and the Zeta River in Montenegro

1
“Water Supply and Sewerage” LLC, Zetskih vladara bb, 81000 Podgorica, Montenegro
2
Faculty of Civil Engineering, University of Montenegro, Dzordza Vasingtona bb, 81000 Podgorica, Montenegro
3
Department of Environmental Sciences, Jožef Stefan Institute, Jamova cesta 39, 1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia
4
Faculty of Environmental Protection, University of Educons, Vojvode Putnika 87, 21208 Sremska Kamenica, Serbia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Water 2020, 12(4), 957; https://doi.org/10.3390/w12040957
Received: 18 February 2020 / Revised: 23 March 2020 / Accepted: 23 March 2020 / Published: 28 March 2020
(This article belongs to the Section Water Resources Management, Policy and Governance)
The Mareza karst aquifer is the most important drinking water resource for the water supply system of the City of Podgorica, the capital of Montenegro. This study presents the first assessment for the determination of the Mareza catchment area. Water chemistry and stable isotopic composition (δ18O and δ2H) of monthly precipitation samples (as inputs) are presented, in order to determine the Local Meteoric Water Line (LMWL) for the study area, and to analyze the behavior of the karst spring Mareza (as output) and the Zeta River water. The possible impact of the river on the Mareza springs was also investigated. Stable isotope compositions were used to analyze the origin of the four springs of the Mareza aquifer. Seasonal variations of δ18O and δ2H values and deuterium excess (d excess) changes in precipitation are explained by the mixing of air masses, such that a Mediterranean source prevails in the winter period, while in the summer period, the area is rather under the influence of air mass originating from the Atlantic Ocean. All spring water samples have lower δ values than the local precipitation and they plot above the LMWL, which may indicate recharge at a higher altitude in the distant mountainous area. The d excess values of all water samples (higher than 10‰) indicate the prevalence of the Mediterranean as a moisture source. Based on the analysis of the seasonal variations of δ18O and δ2H in precipitation and the Mareza spring, it has been estimated that the groundwater mean transit time (MTT) is 92–129 days, and that the young water fraction (Fyw) amounts to 40.9%–53.3%. These values are typical for the strong karstic springs of highly karstified terrains. View Full-Text
Keywords: karst aquifers; surface water; precipitation; water chemistry; stable isotopes; Montenegro karst aquifers; surface water; precipitation; water chemistry; stable isotopes; Montenegro
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MDPI and ACS Style

Živković, K.; Radulović, M.; Lojen, S.; Pucarević, M. Overview of the Chemical and Isotopic Investigations of the Mareza Springs and the Zeta River in Montenegro. Water 2020, 12, 957. https://doi.org/10.3390/w12040957

AMA Style

Živković K, Radulović M, Lojen S, Pucarević M. Overview of the Chemical and Isotopic Investigations of the Mareza Springs and the Zeta River in Montenegro. Water. 2020; 12(4):957. https://doi.org/10.3390/w12040957

Chicago/Turabian Style

Živković, Katarina; Radulović, Milan; Lojen, Sonja; Pucarević, Mira. 2020. "Overview of the Chemical and Isotopic Investigations of the Mareza Springs and the Zeta River in Montenegro" Water 12, no. 4: 957. https://doi.org/10.3390/w12040957

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