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Drinking Water Temperature around the Globe: Understanding, Policies, Challenges and Opportunities

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KWR-Water Research Institute, 3430 PE Nieuwegein, The Netherlands
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Dipartimento di Ingegneria Civile e Architettura, Università degli Studi di Pavia, 27100 Pavia, Italy
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Department of Civil and Structural Engineering, University of Sheffield, Sheffield S1 3JD, UK
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EVIDES Water utility, 3006 HC Rotterdam, The Netherlands
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Department of Engineering, University of Campania Luigi Vanvitelli–, 81031 Aversa (CE), Italy
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Faculty of Civil Engineering, University of Belgrade, 11000 Belgrade, Serbia
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Sheffield Water Centre, Department of Civil and Structural Engineering, University of Sheffield, Sheffield S1 3JD, UK
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Department of Hydraulic Engineering and Environment, Universitat Politècnica de València, 46022 Valencia, Spain
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Department of Civil Engineering, Stellenbosch University, Stellenbosch 7600, South Africa
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Department of Water Management, Delft University of Technology, 2628 CN Delft, The Netherlands
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Centre for Water Systems, University of Exeter, Exeter EX4 4QF, UK
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Cognita Links, Cali 760033, Colombia
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INRAE, ETBX Research Unit, 75338 Paris, France
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Institute of Municipal Water Management, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Brno University of Technology, 612 00 Brno, Czech Republic
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Water 2020, 12(4), 1049; https://doi.org/10.3390/w12041049
Received: 28 February 2020 / Revised: 30 March 2020 / Accepted: 1 April 2020 / Published: 7 April 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water Quality in Drinking Water Distribution Systems)
Water temperature is often monitored at water sources and treatment works; however, there is limited monitoring of the water temperature in the drinking water distribution system (DWDS), despite a known impact on physical, chemical and microbial reactions which impact water quality. A key parameter influencing drinking water temperature is soil temperature, which is influenced by the urban heat island effects. This paper provides critique and comprehensive summary of the current knowledge, policies and challenges regarding drinking water temperature research and presents the findings from a survey of international stakeholders. Knowledge gaps as well as challenges and opportunities for monitoring and research are identified. The conclusion of the study is that temperature in the DWDS is an emerging concern in various countries regardless of the water source and treatment, climate conditions, or network characteristics such as topology, pipe material or diameter. More research is needed, especially to determine (i) the effect of higher temperatures, (ii) a legislative limit on temperature and (iii) measures to comply with this limit. View Full-Text
Keywords: tap water temperature; climate change; underground hotspots; subsurface urban heat island; water quality and safety; shallow underground tap water temperature; climate change; underground hotspots; subsurface urban heat island; water quality and safety; shallow underground
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MDPI and ACS Style

Agudelo-Vera, C.; Avvedimento, S.; Boxall, J.; Creaco, E.; de Kater, H.; Di Nardo, A.; Djukic, A.; Douterelo, I.; Fish, K.E.; Iglesias Rey, P.L.; Jacimovic, N.; Jacobs, H.E.; Kapelan, Z.; Martinez Solano, J.; Montoya Pachongo, C.; Piller, O.; Quintiliani, C.; Ručka, J.; Tuhovčák, L.; Blokker, M. Drinking Water Temperature around the Globe: Understanding, Policies, Challenges and Opportunities. Water 2020, 12, 1049. https://doi.org/10.3390/w12041049

AMA Style

Agudelo-Vera C, Avvedimento S, Boxall J, Creaco E, de Kater H, Di Nardo A, Djukic A, Douterelo I, Fish KE, Iglesias Rey PL, Jacimovic N, Jacobs HE, Kapelan Z, Martinez Solano J, Montoya Pachongo C, Piller O, Quintiliani C, Ručka J, Tuhovčák L, Blokker M. Drinking Water Temperature around the Globe: Understanding, Policies, Challenges and Opportunities. Water. 2020; 12(4):1049. https://doi.org/10.3390/w12041049

Chicago/Turabian Style

Agudelo-Vera, Claudia; Avvedimento, Stefania; Boxall, Joby; Creaco, Enrico; de Kater, Henk; Di Nardo, Armando; Djukic, Aleksandar; Douterelo, Isabel; Fish, Katherine E.; Iglesias Rey, Pedro L.; Jacimovic, Nenad; Jacobs, Heinz E.; Kapelan, Zoran; Martinez Solano, Javier; Montoya Pachongo, Carolina; Piller, Olivier; Quintiliani, Claudia; Ručka, Jan; Tuhovčák, Ladislav; Blokker, Mirjam. 2020. "Drinking Water Temperature around the Globe: Understanding, Policies, Challenges and Opportunities" Water 12, no. 4: 1049. https://doi.org/10.3390/w12041049

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