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Open AccessArticle

Managing Water Quality in Intermittent Supply Systems: The Case of Mukono Town, Uganda

1
Department of Engineering, Course of Social Systems and Civil Engineering, Tottori University, Tottori 680-8552, Japan
2
National Water and Sewerage Corporation, P.O. Box 7053, Kampala, Uganda
3
Department of Water Management, Delft University of Technology, 2628 CN Delft, The Netherlands
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Water 2020, 12(3), 806; https://doi.org/10.3390/w12030806
Received: 31 January 2020 / Revised: 8 March 2020 / Accepted: 11 March 2020 / Published: 13 March 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water Quality in Drinking Water Distribution Systems)
Intermittent water supply networks risk microbial and chemical contamination through multiple mechanisms. In particular, in the cities of developing countries, where intrusion through leaky pipes are more prevalent and the sanitation systems coverage is low, contaminated water can be a public health hazard. Although countries using intermittent water supply systems aim to change to continuous water supply systems—for example, Kampala city is targeting to change to continuous water supply by 2025 through an expansion and rehabilitation of the pipe infrastructure—it is unlikely that this transition will happen soon because of rapid urbanisation and economic feasibility challenges. Therefore, water utilities need to find ways to supply safe drinking water using existing systems until gradually changing to a continuous supply system. This study describes solutions for improving water quality in Mukono town in Uganda through a combination of water quality monitoring (e.g., identifying potential intrusion hotspots into the pipeline using field measurements) and interventions (e.g., booster chlorination). In addition to measuring and analyses of multiple chemical and microbial water quality parameters, we used EPANET 2.0 to simulate the water quality dynamics in the transport pipeline to assess the impact of interventions. View Full-Text
Keywords: intermittent water supply; microbial contamination; drinking water quality modelling; sustainable development goals (SDG6) intermittent water supply; microbial contamination; drinking water quality modelling; sustainable development goals (SDG6)
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MDPI and ACS Style

Sakomoto, T.; Lutaaya, M.; Abraham, E. Managing Water Quality in Intermittent Supply Systems: The Case of Mukono Town, Uganda. Water 2020, 12, 806. https://doi.org/10.3390/w12030806

AMA Style

Sakomoto T, Lutaaya M, Abraham E. Managing Water Quality in Intermittent Supply Systems: The Case of Mukono Town, Uganda. Water. 2020; 12(3):806. https://doi.org/10.3390/w12030806

Chicago/Turabian Style

Sakomoto, Takuya; Lutaaya, Mahmood; Abraham, Edo. 2020. "Managing Water Quality in Intermittent Supply Systems: The Case of Mukono Town, Uganda" Water 12, no. 3: 806. https://doi.org/10.3390/w12030806

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