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Article

Influence of Farming Intensity and Climate on Lowland Stream Nitrogen

1
Departamento de Ecología y Gestión Ambiental, Centro Universitario Regional Este (CURE), Universidad de la República, Punta del Este 20100, Uruguay
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Department Aquatic Ecosystem Analysis, Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research—UFZ, 39114 Magdeburg, Germany
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Department of Bioscience and Arctic Research Centre, Aarhus University, 8600 Silkeborg, Denmark
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Sino-Danish Centre for Education and Research, Beijing 100000, China
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Limnology Laboratory, Department of Biological Sciences and EKOSAM, Middle East Technical University, 06800 Ankara, Turkey
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Leibniz-Institute of Freshwater Ecology and Inland Fisheries, 12587 Berlin, Germany
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South American Institute for Resilience and Sustainability Studies (SARAS), Bella Vista 20302, Uruguay
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Water 2020, 12(4), 1021; https://doi.org/10.3390/w12041021
Received: 17 February 2020 / Revised: 19 March 2020 / Accepted: 30 March 2020 / Published: 2 April 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Land Use and Water Quality)
Nitrogen lost from agriculture has altered the geochemistry of the biosphere, with pronounced impacts on aquatic ecosystems. We aim to elucidate the patterns and driving factors behind the N fluxes in lowland stream ecosystems differing about land-use and climatic-hydrological conditions. The climate-hydrology areas represented humid cold temperate/stable discharge conditions, and humid subtropical climate/flashy conditions. Three complementary monitoring sampling characteristics were selected, including a total of 43 streams under contrasting farming intensities. Farming intensity determined total dissolved N (TDN), nitrate concentrations, and total N concentration and loss to streams, despite differences in soil and climatic-hydrological conditions between and within regions. However, ammonium (NH4+) and dissolved organic N concentrations did not show significant responses to the farming intensity or climatic/hydrological conditions. A high dissolved inorganic N to TDN ratio was associated with the temperate climate and high base flow conditions, but not with farming intensity. In the absence of a significant increase in farming N use efficiency (or the introduction of other palliative measures), the expected farming intensification would result in a stronger increase in NO3, TDN, and TN concentrations as well as in rising flow-weighted concentrations and loss in temperate and subtropical streams, which will further exacerbate eutrophication. View Full-Text
Keywords: agricultural impact; stream; nitrogen concentration; nitrogen losses; eutrophication agricultural impact; stream; nitrogen concentration; nitrogen losses; eutrophication
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MDPI and ACS Style

Goyenola, G.; Graeber, D.; Meerhoff, M.; Jeppesen, E.; Teixeira-de Mello, F.; Vidal, N.; Fosalba, C.; Ovesen, N.B.; Gelbrecht, J.; Mazzeo, N.; Kronvang, B. Influence of Farming Intensity and Climate on Lowland Stream Nitrogen. Water 2020, 12, 1021. https://doi.org/10.3390/w12041021

AMA Style

Goyenola G, Graeber D, Meerhoff M, Jeppesen E, Teixeira-de Mello F, Vidal N, Fosalba C, Ovesen NB, Gelbrecht J, Mazzeo N, Kronvang B. Influence of Farming Intensity and Climate on Lowland Stream Nitrogen. Water. 2020; 12(4):1021. https://doi.org/10.3390/w12041021

Chicago/Turabian Style

Goyenola, Guillermo, Daniel Graeber, Mariana Meerhoff, Erik Jeppesen, Franco Teixeira-de Mello, Nicolás Vidal, Claudia Fosalba, Niels B. Ovesen, Joerg Gelbrecht, Néstor Mazzeo, and Brian Kronvang. 2020. "Influence of Farming Intensity and Climate on Lowland Stream Nitrogen" Water 12, no. 4: 1021. https://doi.org/10.3390/w12041021

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