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Open AccessArticle

Microphysical Characteristics of Winter Precipitation in Eastern China from 2014 to 2019

by Kang Pu 1, Xichuan Liu 1,*, Hongbing He 1, Yu Sun 2, Shuai Hu 1 and Yi Wu 3
1
College of Meteorology and Oceanography, National University of Defense Technology, Nanjing 211101, China
2
Beijing Aerospace Control Center, Beijing 100094, China
3
Nanjing Meteorological Bureau, China Meteorological Administration, Nanjing 210019, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Water 2020, 12(3), 920; https://doi.org/10.3390/w12030920 (registering DOI)
Received: 18 February 2020 / Revised: 17 March 2020 / Accepted: 20 March 2020 / Published: 24 March 2020
(This article belongs to the Section Hydrology)
To improve solid precipitation monitoring in the hydrology and meteorology field, 1-min precipitation data observed by the PARticle SIze VELocity (PARSIVEL) disdrometer in Nanjing, eastern China, from February 2014 to February 2019 for all days with solid precipitation, were used to study the microphysical characteristics of winter precipitation. In this study, the empirical V-D (velocity–diameter) relationships and observed surface temperature are used for matching precipitation types, and the precipitation data are divided into rain, graupel, wet snow and dry snow. The results show that dry snow and wet snow have maximum Dm (mass-weighted mean diameter) and minimum log10Nw (normalized intercept parameter), while rain shows the opposite. Additionally, the μ-Λ (shape parameter–slope parameter) curve of dry snow and wet snow is very close, and the μ value of dry snow and wet snow is higher than that of graupel and higher than that of rain for the same Λ value. Furthermore, the Ze-S (equivalent reflectivity factor–precipitation intensity) relationships among different types of precipitation are significantly different. If only the Ze-S relationship of rain is used for quantitative precipitation estimation (QPE), then, for small precipitation intensity, solid precipitation will be overestimated, while, for large precipitation intensity, it will be underestimated. View Full-Text
Keywords: winter precipitation; particle size distribution; log10Nw-Dm; μ-Λ; Ze-S winter precipitation; particle size distribution; log10Nw-Dm; μ-Λ; Ze-S
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Pu, K.; Liu, X.; He, H.; Sun, Y.; Hu, S.; Wu, Y. Microphysical Characteristics of Winter Precipitation in Eastern China from 2014 to 2019. Water 2020, 12, 920.

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