Next Article in Journal
Evaluation of Dispersed Alkaline Substrate and Diffusive Exchange System Technologies for the Passive Treatment of Copper Mining Acid Drainage
Previous Article in Journal
Evaluating the Impact of Climate Change on Paddy Water Balance Using APEX-Paddy Model
Previous Article in Special Issue
Temporal Soil Moisture Variations in Different Vegetation Cover Types in Karst Areas of Southwest China: A Plot Scale Case Study
Open AccessArticle

Recharge–Discharge Relations of Groundwater in Volcanic Terrain of Semi-Humid Tropical Highlands of Ethiopia: The Case of Infranz Springs, in the Upper Blue Nile

1
Blue Nile Water Institute, School of Earth Science, Bahir Dar University, P.O.Box 79, Bahir Dar 6000, Ethiopia
2
Laboratory for Applied Geology and Hydrogeology, Department of Geology, Ghent University, Krijgslaan 281-S8, 9000 Gent, Belgium
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Water 2020, 12(3), 853; https://doi.org/10.3390/w12030853
Received: 19 November 2019 / Revised: 27 February 2020 / Accepted: 9 March 2020 / Published: 18 March 2020
The major springs in the Infranz catchment are a significant source of water for Bahir Dar City and nearby villages, while sustaining the Infranz River and the downstream wetlands. The aim of the research was to understand the hydrogeological conditions of these high-discharge springs and the recharge–discharge relations in the Infranz catchment. The Infranz catchment is covered by highly pervious and young quaternary volcanic rocks, consisting of blocky, fractured, and strongly vesicular scoriaceous basalt. At the surface, these rocks crop out as lineaments forming ridges, delimiting closed depressions in which water accumulates during the rainy season without causing surface runoff. Geology and geomorphology thus combine to produce very favorable conditions for groundwater recharge. Three groundwater recharge methods were applied to estimate groundwater recharge and the results were compared. Groundwater recharge was calculated to be 30% to 51% of rainfall. Rapid replenishment raises the groundwater level during the rainfall period, followed by a rapid decline during the dry season. Shallow local flow paths discharge at seasonal springs and streams, while more regional and deeper flow systems downstream sustain the high-discharge springs and perennial Infranz River. The uptake of 75% of spring water for the water supply of Bahir Dar City, local extraction for domestic and small-scale irrigation use from springs, rivers and hand-dug wells, encroaching farming, and overgrazing are exacerbating wetland degradation. View Full-Text
Keywords: Infranz River; Bahir Dar; Ethiopia; hydrochemistry; over-extraction; wetland degradation Infranz River; Bahir Dar; Ethiopia; hydrochemistry; over-extraction; wetland degradation
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Nigate, F.; Van Camp, M.; Yenehun, A.; Belay, A.S.; Walraevens, K. Recharge–Discharge Relations of Groundwater in Volcanic Terrain of Semi-Humid Tropical Highlands of Ethiopia: The Case of Infranz Springs, in the Upper Blue Nile. Water 2020, 12, 853.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop