Drying Lakes: A Review on the Applied Restoration Strategies and Health Conditions in Contiguous Areas
1.1. Drying Saline Lakes in the World—A Brief Presentation
1.2. Lake Drying Processes
1.3. Data and Methods
1.4. Location of the Drying Saline Lakes
1.4.1. Lake Urmia Basin
1.4.2. Aral Sea Basin
2. Drying Saline Lakes and Related Health Effects
3. Restoration of Drying Lake Urmia and Aral Sea
3.1. Lake Urmia and Restoration Efforts
3.1.1. Urmia Lake Restoration Project (ULRP) Overview
3.1.2. Water Transfer Activities
- To use treated wastewater to augment the inflow
- To make water transfers from the Zab River
- To make water transfers from the Hasanloo Dam
- To transfer water from the Aras River
- To transfer water from the Caspian Sea
3.2. The Aral Sea and Restoration Efforts
3.2.1. Action Taken for Restoration of the Northern Aral Sea
- To secure that the North Aral Sea, which will improve the ecology, environment, and biodiversity in the delta, which in turn would improve the health of humans and animals living nearby
- Increase agricultural and fishing yields in the region.
- Recuperation of Northern Aral Sea: Construction of earthen dyke made of local fine-grained sand with elevation 44.5 m a.s.l., length of 13.5 km, width of 2 m, and 9 sluice gates to control the discharge of water .
- Improvement of hydraulic regulators for the Syr Darya: Reconstruction of the Aklak weir, Aitek and Karaozek hydraulic regulators to increase the water flow capacity in Syr Darya river, rehabilitation of Kazalinsk and Kyzylorda barrages to improve water availability for irrigation and lakes for fishing activities, and construction of embankments across the river to control floods.
- Rehabilitation of the Chardara Dam: Chardara dam receives a large quantity of water during the winter that is above the storage capacity of the dam. The excess water is diverted to the Arnasi depression in Uzbekistan resulting in flooding problems in Arnasi area. Hence rehabilitation of Kyzylkum irrigation canal, spillway gate and outlet, chutes, and installing instrumentation systems to the dam were prioritized in this activity.
- Restoration of aquatic resources and development of fisheries: This activity aimed at rehabilitating existing freshwater and marine water fish hatcheries to increase trading opportunities and sustainable fishing for sturgeon in the North Aral Sea.
- Monitoring and evaluation: Assessment of socio-economic and environmental impacts of the SYNAS project.
- Project management: Provide financial support and technical advice for the overall project.
3.2.2. Action Taken for Restoration of the Southern Aral Sea
- Environmental insecurity
- Economic insecurity
- Food insecurity
- Health insecurity
- Social insecurity
- Ineffectiveness of donor assistance
- To reduce the stress on local communities that have emerged due to the deteriorating environmental situation
- To increase the employment and income generation opportunities for affected communities
- To secure access to affordable and healthy food and clean drinking water for the local communities
- To improve the overall health of the local population, and to enable and promote healthy lifestyles
- To improve the living conditions of local populations, with a focus on vulnerable groups such as women, children, and youth.
Conflicts of Interest
- Control and reduction of water consumption in the agricultural sector—US $226,236,000
- Control and reduction in the withdrawal of surface and groundwater in Lake Urmia Basin—US $16,206,000
- Prevent unauthorized withdrawals from surface water—US $7,455,000
- Installation of smart meters to control water withdrawal from tributary rivers—US $8,751,000
- Initiatives on protection and mitigation of negative impacts—US $22,201,000
- Identification and stabilization of dust sources—US $17,534,000
- Study and implementation of Lake Urmia National Park—US $3,333,000
- Preparation and implementation of programs to prevent and reduce health, environmental, and social issues arising from the drying lake—US $667,000
- Diversifying economy—US $667,000
- Studies and software measures—US $25,635,000
- Development and implementation of a public awareness program to communicate the importance of lake restoration—US $7,334,000
- Cadastral mapping of Lake Urmia Basin—US $8,000,000
- Impact study of Kalantari causeway on Lake Urmia’s ecosystem - US $333,000
- Feasibility assessment of Lake Urmia’s salts for industrial application—US $1,333,000
- Study of the plans to transfer water to Lake Urmia from the Caspian Sea—US $467,000
- Monitoring and evaluating implemented projects—US $6,835,000
- Design and deployment of decision support system—US $667,000
- Study to reduce evaporation and perform cloud seeding within Lake Urmia Basin—US $666,000
- Facilitate the increase of the water volume entering the Lake throughout structural measures—US $23,535,000
- Water transfer to Lake Urmia’s islands and wetlands through Hasanloo Dam—US $667,000
- Water transfer through rivers—US $22,868,000
- Water supply from new water resources—US $312,779,000
- Water transfer from Zab River to Lake Urmia—US $197,099,000
- Water transfer from wastewater treatment plants—US $114,347,000
- Research and implementation of water transfer from the Aras River—US $1,333,000
- Recuperation of Northern Aral Sea—US $23.19 million
- Improvement of hydraulic regulators for the Syr Darya—US $40.95 million
- Rehabilitation of the Chardara Dam—US $14.10 million
- Restoration of aquatic resources and development of fisheries—US $2 million
- Monitoring and evaluation—US $1.50 million
- Project management—US $1.60 million
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|Fishing||Increase in yield from 52 tons (2004) to 2650 tons (2009).|
|Agriculture||Increase in yield of rice from 58,500 ha (2001) to 73,300 ha (2009). Sustainable cropping was practiced in 150,000 ha land.|
|Health||There are reports of improved health conditions, but not enough data to validate this claim.|
|Salinity level||The water level increased from 38 m to 42 m with salinity drop from 20 gram per liter (2001) to 11 gram per liter (2018).|
|Inflow was 4.318 million cubic meters (MCM) in 2005, 3.090 MCM in 2015, and 2.814 MCM in 2018 with a water level at 40.4 m, 41.9 m, and 42.05 m, respectively.|
The surface area of the North Aral Sea increased from 2940 km2 to 3306 km2.
Reduction of distance from Aralsk harbor to Aral Sea reduced from 75 km (2001) to 35 km (2010).
The capacity of the Syr Darya river increased from 300 m3/s (2001) to 425 m3/s (2017).
Water loss into desert depressions was reduced from 5 billion cubic meters (BCM) (2003) to 0.2 BCM (2009).
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Tussupova, K.; Anchita; Hjorth, P.; Moravej, M. Drying Lakes: A Review on the Applied Restoration Strategies and Health Conditions in Contiguous Areas. Water 2020, 12, 749. https://doi.org/10.3390/w12030749
Tussupova K, Anchita, Hjorth P, Moravej M. Drying Lakes: A Review on the Applied Restoration Strategies and Health Conditions in Contiguous Areas. Water. 2020; 12(3):749. https://doi.org/10.3390/w12030749Chicago/Turabian Style
Tussupova, Kamshat, Anchita, Peder Hjorth, and Mojtaba Moravej. 2020. "Drying Lakes: A Review on the Applied Restoration Strategies and Health Conditions in Contiguous Areas" Water 12, no. 3: 749. https://doi.org/10.3390/w12030749