Integrated Geological, Hydrogeological, and Geophysical Investigations of a Barchan Sand Dune in the Eastern Region of Saudi Arabia
2. Materials and Methods
2.1. Sand Sampling Method
2.2. Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT)
- Wenner spread (Figure 2a). This is a commonly used electrode spread in field measurements. In this spread the electrodes are uniformly spaced in a line with the offset between each two successive electrodes equal to ‘a’. In this case, the geometrical factor ‘k’ in Equation (2) is reduced to .
- Schlumberger spread (Figure 2b). The current electrodes in this spread are spaced much further apart than the potential electrodes, where the offset between the current electrodes is equal to ‘2L’ and the offset between the potential electrodes is equal to ‘2l’. Here, the geometrical factor ‘k’ in Equation (2) is reduced to ; for more details see .
2.3. Laboratory Analyses
2.3.1. Water Content
2.3.3. Grain Size Distribution
2.3.4. Mineral and Chemical Composition
3.1. Lithology of the Sand Dune
3.2. Mineral Composition of Sands
3.3. Water Content
3.4. Sand Salinity
3.5. Sand Texture
3.6. Electrical Resistivity Results
- Zone 1: This zone shows high resistivity values (~660 Ohm-m) at the shallow depth (0 to 0.6 m). High values are associated with the dry sand on the top of the dune.
- Zone 2: The resistivity decreases to about 170 Ohm-m at a depth between 0.6 m and 1.3 m, and is marked as “A” in Figure 10. This low-resistivity zone is associated with high water content as shown in Figure 5, due to the infiltrated rainwater from the last precipitation event, and it is vertically-shifted down in the ERT section.
- Zone 3: At a depth ranging from 2.5 m to 5.8 m, the resistivity increases to 1300 Ohm-m, and is marked as “B” in Figure 10. This corresponds to the dry sand.
- Zone 4: Finally, the resistivity gradually decreases until reaching 4.6 Ohm-m at the bottom of the ERT section. This is due to the effects of the saline groundwater and the sabkha layer.
Conflicts of Interest
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Benaafi, M.; Hanafy, S.M.; Al-Shuhail, A.; El-Husseiny, A.; Dvorkin, J. Integrated Geological, Hydrogeological, and Geophysical Investigations of a Barchan Sand Dune in the Eastern Region of Saudi Arabia. Water 2020, 12, 682. https://doi.org/10.3390/w12030682
Benaafi M, Hanafy SM, Al-Shuhail A, El-Husseiny A, Dvorkin J. Integrated Geological, Hydrogeological, and Geophysical Investigations of a Barchan Sand Dune in the Eastern Region of Saudi Arabia. Water. 2020; 12(3):682. https://doi.org/10.3390/w12030682Chicago/Turabian Style
Benaafi, Mohammed, Sherif M. Hanafy, Abdullatif Al-Shuhail, Ammar El-Husseiny, and Jack Dvorkin. 2020. "Integrated Geological, Hydrogeological, and Geophysical Investigations of a Barchan Sand Dune in the Eastern Region of Saudi Arabia" Water 12, no. 3: 682. https://doi.org/10.3390/w12030682