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Open AccessArticle

Predicting the Trend of Dissolved Oxygen Based on the kPCA-RNN Model

1
Agriculture & Food, CSIRO, Brisbane, QLD 4067, Australia
2
Land & Water, CSIRO, Canberra, ACT 2601, Australia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Water 2020, 12(2), 585; https://doi.org/10.3390/w12020585
Received: 19 December 2019 / Revised: 10 February 2020 / Accepted: 14 February 2020 / Published: 20 February 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Land Use and Water Quality)
Water quality forecasting is increasingly significant for agricultural management and environmental protection. Enormous amounts of water quality data are collected by advanced sensors, which leads to an interest in using data-driven models for predicting trends in water quality. However, the unpredictable background noises introduced during water quality monitoring seriously degrade the performance of those models. Meanwhile, artificial neural networks (ANN) with feed-forward architecture lack the capability of maintaining and utilizing the accumulated temporal information, which leads to biased predictions in processing time series data. Hence, we propose a water quality predictive model based on a combination of Kernal Principal Component Analysis (kPCA) and Recurrent Neural Network (RNN) to forecast the trend of dissolved oxygen. Water quality variables are reconstructed based on the kPCA method, which aims to reduce the noise from the raw sensory data and preserve actionable information. With the RNN’s recurrent connections, our model can make use of the previous information in predicting the trend in the future. Data collected from Burnett River, Australia was applied to evaluate our kPCA-RNN model. The kPCA-RNN model achieved R 2 scores up to 0.908, 0.823, and 0.671 for predicting the concentration of dissolved oxygen in the upcoming 1, 2 and 3 hours, respectively. Compared to current data-driven methods like Feed-forward neural network (FFNN), support vector regression (SVR) and general regression neural network (GRNN), the predictive accuracy of the kPCA-RNN model was at least 8%, 17% and 12% better than the comparative models in these three cases. The study demonstrates the effectiveness of the kPAC-RNN modeling technique in predicting water quality variables with noisy sensory data. View Full-Text
Keywords: water quality; machine learning; recurrent neural network; PCA water quality; machine learning; recurrent neural network; PCA
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Zhang, Y.-F.; Fitch, P.; Thorburn, P.J. Predicting the Trend of Dissolved Oxygen Based on the kPCA-RNN Model. Water 2020, 12, 585.

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