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Open AccessArticle

Unveiling the Potential of Novel Macrophytes for the Treatment of Tannery Effluent in Vertical Flow Pilot Constructed Wetlands

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Institute of Soil and Environmental Sciences, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad 38040, Pakistan
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National Institute for Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering (NIBGE), Faisalabad 38000, Pakistan
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Plant Production Department, College of Food and Agriculture Sciences, King Saud University, P.O. Box 2460, Riyadh 11451, Saudi Arabia
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Department of Crop Sciences, Faculty of Agriculture, Menoufia University, 32514 Shibin El-kom, Egypt
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National Engineering Laboratory for Improving Quality of Arable Land, Institute of Agricultural Resources and Regional Planning, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing 100081, China
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Biology Department, College of Science and Humanity Studies, Prince Sattam Bin Abdulaziz University, Al Kharj Box 292, Riyadh 11942, Saudi Arabia
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Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Water 2020, 12(2), 549; https://doi.org/10.3390/w12020549
Received: 27 December 2019 / Revised: 9 February 2020 / Accepted: 11 February 2020 / Published: 15 February 2020
(This article belongs to the Section Aquatic Systems—Quality and Contamination)
The phytoremediation potential of macrophytic species has made them an inevitable component of constructed wetlands (CWs) for the treatment of industrial effluents. The macrophytes must have tolerance for the harsh conditions imposed by effluents for an effective establishment of the CW system. In this context, the basic purpose of this work was to investigate the efficacy of five indigenous emergent macrophytes (Brachiaria mutica, Canna indica, Cyperus laevigatus, Leptochloa fusca, and Typha domingensis) for the remediation of tannery effluent in vertical subsurface flow CWs. The ability of each macrophytic species to tolerate pollution load and to remove pollutants from the effluent was assessed. The effect of tannery effluent on the survival and growth of macrophytes was also studied. The treated tannery effluent samples were analyzed for electrical conductivity (EC), pH, biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5), chemical oxygen demand (COD), total dissolved solids (TDS), total suspended solids (TSS), chlorides (Cl), sulphates (SO42−), oil and grease, and Cr levels. All of the studied macrophytes significantly decreased the pollution load of tannery effluent, and the higher nutrient content of effluent stimulated their growth without any signs of negative health effects. Leptochloa fusca and T. domingensis performed better in removing pollutants and showed higher growth rates and biomass than other tested macrophytes and can be considered preferred species for use in CWs treating tannery effluent. Brachiaria mutica showed morphologically better results than C. indica and C. laevigatus. View Full-Text
Keywords: tannery effluent; wastewater treatment; phytotechnology; wetland plants; tanning industry; constructed wetlands tannery effluent; wastewater treatment; phytotechnology; wetland plants; tanning industry; constructed wetlands
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Ashraf, S.; Naveed, M.; Afzal, M.; Seleiman, M.F.; Al-Suhaibani, N.A.; Zahir, Z.A.; Mustafa, A.; Refay, Y.; Alhammad, B.A.; Ashraf, S.; Alotaibi, M.; Abdella, K.A. Unveiling the Potential of Novel Macrophytes for the Treatment of Tannery Effluent in Vertical Flow Pilot Constructed Wetlands. Water 2020, 12, 549.

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