Next Article in Journal
A New Method to Determine the Spatial Sensitivity of Time Domain Reflectometry Probes Based on Three-Dimensional Weighting Theory
Next Article in Special Issue
Electrocoagulation: A Promising Method to Treat and Reuse Mineral Processing Wastewater with High COD
Previous Article in Journal
Two-Dimensional Free-Surface Flow Modeling for Wave-Structure Interactions and Induced Motions of Floating Bodies
Previous Article in Special Issue
Advanced Treatment of Real Grey Water by SBR Followed by Ultrafiltration—Performance and Fouling Behavior
Open AccessArticle

Quantitative PCR Detection of Enteric Viruses in Wastewater and Environmental Water Sources by the Lisbon Municipality: A Case Study

1
Câmara Municipal de Lisboa, Direcção Municipal do Ambiente, Estrutura Verde, Clima e Energia, Laboratório de Bromatologia e Águas, Avenida Cidade do Porto S/N-1700-111 Lisboa, Portugal
2
Centro de Estudos do Ambiente e do Mar (CESAM), Faculdade de Ciências da Universidade de Lisboa, Campo Grande, 1749-016 Lisboa, Portugal
3
Departamento de Saúde Ambiental, Instituto Nacional de Saúde Doutor Ricardo Jorge, Avenida Padre Cruz, 1649-016 Lisboa, Portugal
4
Departamento de Epidemiologia, Instituto Nacional de Saúde Doutor Ricardo Jorge, Avenida Padre Cruz, 1649-016 Lisboa, Portugal
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Water 2020, 12(2), 544; https://doi.org/10.3390/w12020544
Received: 10 January 2020 / Revised: 12 February 2020 / Accepted: 13 February 2020 / Published: 15 February 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wastewater Treatment, Valorization and Reuse)
Current regulations and legislation require critical revision to determine safety for alternative water sources and water reuse as part of the solution to global water crisis. In order to fulfill those demands, Lisbon municipality decided to start water reuse as part of a sustainable hydric resources management, and there was a need to confirm safety and safeguard for public health for its use in this context. For this purpose, a study was designed that included a total of 88 samples collected from drinking, superficial, underground water, and wastewater at three different treatment stages. Quantitative Polimerase Chain Reaction (PCR) detection (qPCR) of enteric viruses Norovirus (NoV) genogroups I (GI) and II (GII) and Hepatitis A (HepA) was performed, and also FIB (E. coli, enterococci and fecal coliforms) concentrations were assessed. HepA virus was only detected in one untreated influent sample, whereas NoV GI/ NoV GI were detected in untreated wastewater (100/100%), secondary treated effluent (47/73%), and tertiary treated effluent (33/20%). Our study proposes that NoV GI and GII should be further studied to provide the support that they may be suitable indicators for water quality monitoring targeting wastewater treatment efficiency, regardless of the level of treatment. View Full-Text
Keywords: norovirus; water reuse; water quality norovirus; water reuse; water quality
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Teixeira, P.; Costa, S.; Brown, B.; Silva, S.; Rodrigues, R.; Valério, E. Quantitative PCR Detection of Enteric Viruses in Wastewater and Environmental Water Sources by the Lisbon Municipality: A Case Study. Water 2020, 12, 544.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop