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Open AccessArticle

Spatial Differences in the Chemical Composition of Surface Water in the Hornsund Fjord Area: A Statistical Analysis with A Focus on Local Pollution Sources

1
Department of Analytical Chemistry, Chemical Faculty, Gdańsk University of Technology, G. Narutowicza 11/12, 80-233 Gdańsk, Poland
2
Institute of Earth Sciences, Faculty of Natural Sciences, University of Silesia, Będzińska 60, 41-200 Sosnowiec, Poland
3
Department of Hydrology and Climatology, Faculty of Earth Sciences and Spatial Management, Maria Curie-Skłodowska University, Krasnicka 2d, 20-718 Lublin, Poland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Water 2020, 12(2), 496; https://doi.org/10.3390/w12020496
Received: 4 December 2019 / Revised: 2 February 2020 / Accepted: 7 February 2020 / Published: 12 February 2020
Surface catchments in Svalbard are sensitive to external pollution, and yet what is frequently considered external contamination may originate from local sources and natural processes. In this work, we analyze the chemical composition of surface waters in the catchments surrounding the Polish Polar Station in Svalbard, Hornsund fjord area. We have pooled unpublished and already published data describing surface water composition in 2010, related to its pH, electrical conductivity (EC), metals and metalloids, total organic carbon (TOC) and selected organic compound concentrations, including persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and surfactants. These data were statistically analyzed for spatial differences, using Kruskal–Wallis ANOVA and principal component analysis (PCA), with distance from the station in the PCA approximating local human activity impact. The geological composition of the substratum was found to be a strong determinant of metal and metalloid concentrations, sufficient to explain significant differences between the studied water bodies, except for the concentration of Cr. The past and present human activity in the area may have contributed also to some of the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), although only in the case of naphthalene can such an effect be confirmed by an inverse correlation with distance from the station. Other likely factors contributing to the chemical concentrations in the local waters are marine influence, long-range pollution transport and release from past deposition in the environment. View Full-Text
Keywords: trace elements; POPs (persistent organic pollutants); surfactants; organic ions; Arctic; lake; stream; local contamination trace elements; POPs (persistent organic pollutants); surfactants; organic ions; Arctic; lake; stream; local contamination
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Koziol, K.; Ruman, M.; Pawlak, F.; Chmiel, S.; Polkowska, Ż. Spatial Differences in the Chemical Composition of Surface Water in the Hornsund Fjord Area: A Statistical Analysis with A Focus on Local Pollution Sources. Water 2020, 12, 496.

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