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Article

Elevation Dependence of the Impact of Global Warming on Rainfall Variations in a Tropical Island

1
MOE Key Laboratory of the Three Gorges Reservoir Region’s Eco-Environment, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400045, China
2
MOE Engineering Research Center for Waste Oil Recovery Technology and Equipment, Chongqing Technology and Business University, Chongqing 400067, China
3
Department of Civil Engineering, Monash University, 23 College Walk, Clayton, VIC 3800, Australia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Water 2020, 12(12), 3582; https://doi.org/10.3390/w12123582
Received: 29 November 2020 / Revised: 16 December 2020 / Accepted: 17 December 2020 / Published: 21 December 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Optimization of Wastewater Treatment Processes)
Due to their vulnerability, understanding the impacts of global warming on rainfall is important for a tropical country and islands. This research aimed to assess the impact of global warming on rainfall in Madagascar, using the Mann-Kendall test, continuous wavelet transform, and polynomial regression. The result showed that the annual, seasonal maximum, and minimum temperature increased, while elevation amplified the increase of maximum temperature. Different trends in rainfall were found in the 22 regions of Madagascar but in general, the increasing trend in rainfall was prominent at a higher elevation than lower elevation. The annual rainfall decreased up to −5 mm per year for the regions located below 450 m of altitude while increased up to +5 mm per year above 500 m. We found that the wet becomes wetter with an important increase in rainfall in summer and the increase in temperature influenced the rainfall. The annual rainfall increased with temperature and elevation. However, if the increase in temperature was more than 0.03 °C per year, the annual rainfall increased regardless of elevation. The knowledge of the elevation dependence of the impact of warming on rainfall is important for water resources management and climate change adaptation strategies, especially for island nations and African countries. View Full-Text
Keywords: global warming; temperature; rainfall; elevation; tropical climate; Madagascar global warming; temperature; rainfall; elevation; tropical climate; Madagascar
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MDPI and ACS Style

Tanteliniaina, M.F.R.; Chen, J.; Adyel, T.M.; Zhai, J. Elevation Dependence of the Impact of Global Warming on Rainfall Variations in a Tropical Island. Water 2020, 12, 3582. https://doi.org/10.3390/w12123582

AMA Style

Tanteliniaina MFR, Chen J, Adyel TM, Zhai J. Elevation Dependence of the Impact of Global Warming on Rainfall Variations in a Tropical Island. Water. 2020; 12(12):3582. https://doi.org/10.3390/w12123582

Chicago/Turabian Style

Tanteliniaina, Mirindra F.R.; Chen, Jia; Adyel, Tanveer M.; Zhai, Jun. 2020. "Elevation Dependence of the Impact of Global Warming on Rainfall Variations in a Tropical Island" Water 12, no. 12: 3582. https://doi.org/10.3390/w12123582

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