Next Article in Journal
Changes in the Compound Drought and Extreme Heat Occurrence in the 1961–2018 Period at the European Scale
Previous Article in Journal
Effect of Clay Colloid Particles on Formaldehyde Transport in Unsaturated Porous Media
Previous Article in Special Issue
Experience from the Implementation and Operation of the Biological Membrane Reactor (MBR) at the Modernized Wastewater Treatment Plant in Wydminy
Review

Challenges in the Development of Hydropower in Selected European Countries

Institute of Environmental Engineering, Wroclaw University of Environmental and Life Sciences, pl. Grunwaldzki 24, 50-363 Wrocław, Poland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Water 2020, 12(12), 3542; https://doi.org/10.3390/w12123542
Received: 25 October 2020 / Revised: 14 December 2020 / Accepted: 14 December 2020 / Published: 16 December 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Innovations in Water Research 2020)
Hydropower in Europe is playing an increasingly important role as a renewable source of energy. Its share of the final energy consumption varies from country to country, posing different challenges in each. The European Union member states are obliged, according to energy policy, to increase the share of renewable energy. This article presents the challenges related to the development of hydropower in four countries with different shares of domestic electricity production from hydropower plants: Albania (100% share in 2019), Slovenia (25.7%), Poland (1.1%), and Estonia (0.3%). Particular attention is paid to the issues of rational management of water resources in connection to Europe’s energy policy. As a result of the case study analysis, the challenges in the development of hydropower are identified, as well as ways to solve them. In addition, a comprehensive analysis of the impact of social, economic, environmental and climate change factors on the development of hydropower was conducted. At present, whether the assumed goals of the European Union’s energy policy will be achieved is impossible to determine for the whole of Europe. Achieving these goals will be possible only after individual countries prepare comprehensive reports on the topics of renewable energy sources, including hydropower. View Full-Text
Keywords: hydropower plants; sustainable development; water management; nature protection; renewable energy sources; international energy policy hydropower plants; sustainable development; water management; nature protection; renewable energy sources; international energy policy
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Tomczyk, P.; Wiatkowski, M. Challenges in the Development of Hydropower in Selected European Countries. Water 2020, 12, 3542. https://doi.org/10.3390/w12123542

AMA Style

Tomczyk P, Wiatkowski M. Challenges in the Development of Hydropower in Selected European Countries. Water. 2020; 12(12):3542. https://doi.org/10.3390/w12123542

Chicago/Turabian Style

Tomczyk, Paweł, and Mirosław Wiatkowski. 2020. "Challenges in the Development of Hydropower in Selected European Countries" Water 12, no. 12: 3542. https://doi.org/10.3390/w12123542

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop