The simulation accuracy of urban flood models is affected by independent variables describing terrain resolution and artificial land cover. An evaluation of these effects could provide suggestions for the improvement of simulation accuracy when the available terrain resolutions and representation methods of land cover are different. This paper focused on exploring and evaluating these effects on simulation accuracy using two indicators, relative depth accuracy (RDA) and relative area accuracy (RAA). The study area was the Nanjing Jianye district in China, which has experienced extensive urbanization. Designed rainfall (2 and 10 year return periods) and three terrain resolutions (17, 35, and 70 m) were used in this paper. Building blocks (BB), road drainage (RD), and a combination of both (BB + RD) were compared to present the effect of artificial land cover. Real flood events were initially simulated as a model verification case, and hypothetic modeling scenarios were simulated to evaluate the effects of different resolutions and representation methods. The results indicate that the effect of terrain resolutions on simulation accuracy was more obvious than that of artificial land cover in the study area. In this paper, 20–30% higher accuracy could be achieved in the 35 m resolution model with respect to the 70 m resolution model. A relative accuracy of 94% was achieved in the 17 m resolution model when using the BB method, which was 5% higher than that using the RD method. This paper shows that evaluating the effects of terrain resolution and artificial land cover is effective and helpful for improving the simulation accuracy of urban flood models in extensively urbanized districts.
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