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Article

Event-Based Time Distribution Patterns, Return Levels, and Their Trends of Extreme Precipitation across Indus Basin

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Research Center of Fluid Machinery Engineering and Technology, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang 212013, China
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Department of Irrigation and Drainage, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad 380000, Pakistan
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Center of Excellence in Water Resources Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology, Lahore 54600, Pakistan
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Department of Geoecology, Institute of Geosciences and Geography, University of Halle-Wittenberg, Von Seckendorff-Platz 4, 06120 Halle (Saale), Germany
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Department of Agricultural Engineering, Muhammad Nawaz Shareef University of Agriculture, Multan 66000, Pakistan
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Department of Land and Water Conservation Engineering, Faculty of Agricultural Engineering and Technology, Pir Mehr Ali Shah Arid Agriculture University, Rawalpindi 46000, Pakistan
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Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Water 2020, 12(12), 3373; https://doi.org/10.3390/w12123373
Received: 27 September 2020 / Revised: 19 November 2020 / Accepted: 27 November 2020 / Published: 1 December 2020
This study presented the spatio-temporal characteristics of extreme precipitation events in the Northern Highlands of Pakistan (NHPK). Daily precipitation observations of 30 in situ meteorological stations from 1961 to 2014 were used to estimate the 11 extreme precipitation indices. Additionally, trends in time distribution patterns (TDPs) and return periods were also investigated for event based extreme precipitations (EEP). Results found that the precipitation events with an amount of 160–320 mm and with a concentration ratio of 0.8–1.0 and a duration of 4–7 consecutive days were dominant. The frequency of heavy, very heavy and extremely heavy precipitation days decreased, whereas the frequency of wet, very wet and extremely wet days increased. Most of the indices, generally, showed an increasing trend from the northeast to middle parts. The extreme precipitation events of the 20 and 50-year return period were more common in the western and central areas of NHPK. Moreover, the 20 and 50-year return levels depicted higher values (up to 420 mm) for an event duration with all daily precipitation extremes dispersed in the first half (TDP1) in the Chitral, Panjkora and Jhelum Rivers basins, whilst the maximum values (up to 700 mm) for an event duration with all daily precipitation extremes dispersed in the second half (TDP2) were observed in the eastern part of the NHPK for 20-year and eastern and south-west for 50-year, respectively. View Full-Text
Keywords: extreme precipitation; precipitation indices; time distribution patterns; Northern Highlands of Pakistan extreme precipitation; precipitation indices; time distribution patterns; Northern Highlands of Pakistan
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MDPI and ACS Style

Zaman, M.; Ahmad, I.; Usman, M.; Saifullah, M.; Anjum, M.N.; Khan, M.I.; Uzair Qamar, M. Event-Based Time Distribution Patterns, Return Levels, and Their Trends of Extreme Precipitation across Indus Basin. Water 2020, 12, 3373. https://doi.org/10.3390/w12123373

AMA Style

Zaman M, Ahmad I, Usman M, Saifullah M, Anjum MN, Khan MI, Uzair Qamar M. Event-Based Time Distribution Patterns, Return Levels, and Their Trends of Extreme Precipitation across Indus Basin. Water. 2020; 12(12):3373. https://doi.org/10.3390/w12123373

Chicago/Turabian Style

Zaman, Muhammad; Ahmad, Ijaz; Usman, Muhammad; Saifullah, Muhammad; Anjum, Muhammad N.; Khan, Muhammad I.; Uzair Qamar, Muhammad. 2020. "Event-Based Time Distribution Patterns, Return Levels, and Their Trends of Extreme Precipitation across Indus Basin" Water 12, no. 12: 3373. https://doi.org/10.3390/w12123373

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