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Article

Identifying Optimal Security Management Policy for Water–Energy–Food Nexus System under Stochastic and Fuzzy Conditions

by 1,*, 2 and 3
1
School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Xiamen University of Technology, Xiamen 361024, China
2
Center for Energy, Environment and Ecology Research, School of Environment, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875, China
3
School of International Languages, Xiamen University of Technology, Xiamen 361024, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Water 2020, 12(11), 3268; https://doi.org/10.3390/w12113268
Received: 13 October 2020 / Revised: 13 November 2020 / Accepted: 18 November 2020 / Published: 21 November 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Management of Water-Energy-Food Security Nexus)
An interval-stochastic-fuzzy policy analysis model is proposed to generate optimal security management policy for a water–energy–food nexus system of the urban agglomeration under multiple uncertainties. A number of planning policies under interval-stochastic surface water and groundwater conditions are obtained. Ranking scores of all policies in descending order, policy with the highest score is the best choice. Results disclose that (a) interval-stochastic available water resources lead to changing system benefits. (b) The shares of cropland area targets are 2.7% (Xiamen), 42.6% (Zhangzhou), and 54.7% (Quanzhou). (c) Different available water scenarios result in varied irrigation patterns. (d) Surface water takes a high fraction of the total water supply (about [71.34, 73.68]%), diesel agricultural machinery service more than 60% of the total cropland. (e) Zhangzhou contributes about 50.01% of total TN and TP emissions, while Quanzhou contributes about 50.61% of total carbon emission. (f) Security level of policies would change with the varied σ and α values, due to the risk attitudes of policy makers. (h) Sweet potato and others are the crops with the highest safety performance; (i) Zhangzhou is the city with highest comprehensive safety performance. View Full-Text
Keywords: management; optimization; policy; security; uncertainty; water–energy–food nexus management; optimization; policy; security; uncertainty; water–energy–food nexus
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MDPI and ACS Style

Liu, J.; Li, Y.; Li, X. Identifying Optimal Security Management Policy for Water–Energy–Food Nexus System under Stochastic and Fuzzy Conditions. Water 2020, 12, 3268. https://doi.org/10.3390/w12113268

AMA Style

Liu J, Li Y, Li X. Identifying Optimal Security Management Policy for Water–Energy–Food Nexus System under Stochastic and Fuzzy Conditions. Water. 2020; 12(11):3268. https://doi.org/10.3390/w12113268

Chicago/Turabian Style

Liu, Jing; Li, Yongping; Li, Xiao. 2020. "Identifying Optimal Security Management Policy for Water–Energy–Food Nexus System under Stochastic and Fuzzy Conditions" Water 12, no. 11: 3268. https://doi.org/10.3390/w12113268

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