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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle

Trends and Non-Stationarity in Groundwater Level Changes in Rapidly Developing Indian Cities

1
Department of Civil Engineering, Amrita School of Engineering, Amrita Vishwa Vidyapeetham, Coimbatore 641112, India
2
Department of Water Resources Development and Management, Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee, Roorkee 247667, India
3
Water Engineering and Management, School of Engineering and Technology, Asian Institute of Technology, P.O. Box 4 Klong Luang, Pathum Thani 12120, Thailand
4
Department of Civil Engineering, Schulich School of Engineering, University of Calgary, Calgary, AB T2N 1N4, Canada
5
Hydrological Investigations Division, National Institute of Hydrology, Roorkee 247667, India
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Water 2020, 12(11), 3209; https://doi.org/10.3390/w12113209
Received: 29 September 2020 / Revised: 1 November 2020 / Accepted: 11 November 2020 / Published: 16 November 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Urbanization under a Changing Climate – Impacts on Urban Hydrology )
In most of the Indian cities, around half of the urban water requirement is fulfilled by groundwater. Recently, seasonal urban droughts have been frequently witnessed globally, which adds more stress to groundwater systems. Excessive pumping and increasing demands in several Indian cities impose a high risk of running out of groundwater storage, which could potentially affect millions of lives in the future. In this paper, groundwater level changes have been comprehensively assessed for seven densely populated and rapidly growing secondary cities across India. Several statistical analyses were performed to detect the trends and non-stationarity in the groundwater level (GWL). Also, the influence of rainfall and land use/land cover changes (LULC) on the GWL was explored. The results suggest that overall, the groundwater level was found to vary between ±10 cm/year in the majority of the wells. Further, the non-stationarity analysis revealed a high impact of rainfall and LULC due to climate variability and anthropogenic activities respectively on the GWL change dynamics. Statistical correlation analysis showed evidence supporting that climate variability could potentially be a major component affecting the rainfall and groundwater recharge relationship. Additionally, from the LULC analysis, a decrease in the green cover area (R = 0.93) was found to have a higher correlation with decreasing groundwater level than that of urban area growth across seven rapidly developing cities. View Full-Text
Keywords: groundwater level; trends; non-stationarity; climate variability; land use/land cover change; developing cities groundwater level; trends; non-stationarity; climate variability; land use/land cover change; developing cities
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MDPI and ACS Style

Mohanavelu, A.; Kasiviswanathan, K.S.; Mohanasundaram, S.; Ilampooranan, I.; He, J.; Pingale, S.M.; Soundharajan, B.-S.; Diwan Mohaideen, M.M. Trends and Non-Stationarity in Groundwater Level Changes in Rapidly Developing Indian Cities. Water 2020, 12, 3209. https://doi.org/10.3390/w12113209

AMA Style

Mohanavelu A, Kasiviswanathan KS, Mohanasundaram S, Ilampooranan I, He J, Pingale SM, Soundharajan B-S, Diwan Mohaideen MM. Trends and Non-Stationarity in Groundwater Level Changes in Rapidly Developing Indian Cities. Water. 2020; 12(11):3209. https://doi.org/10.3390/w12113209

Chicago/Turabian Style

Mohanavelu, Aadhityaa; Kasiviswanathan, K. S.; Mohanasundaram, S.; Ilampooranan, Idhayachandhiran; He, Jianxun; Pingale, Santosh M.; Soundharajan, B.-S.; Diwan Mohaideen, M. M. 2020. "Trends and Non-Stationarity in Groundwater Level Changes in Rapidly Developing Indian Cities" Water 12, no. 11: 3209. https://doi.org/10.3390/w12113209

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