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Review

A Review of Roof and Pond Rainwater Harvesting Systems for Water Security: The Design, Performance and Way Forward

1
River Engineering and Urban Drainage Research Centre (REDAC), Engineering Campus, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Nibong Tebal 14300, Penang, Malaysia
2
School of Humanities, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Gelugor 11800, Penang, Malaysia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Water 2020, 12(11), 3163; https://doi.org/10.3390/w12113163
Received: 22 September 2020 / Revised: 30 October 2020 / Accepted: 9 November 2020 / Published: 12 November 2020
Rapid urbanization, population explosion and climate change have threatened water security globally, regionally and locally. While there are many ways of addressing these problems, one of the innovative techniques is the recent employment of Sustainable Urban Drainage Systems (SUDS) which include rainwater harvesting systems (RWHS). Therefore, this paper reviews the design and component of two types of RWHS, the namely roof harvesting system (RHS) and the pond harvesting system (PHS). The performance in terms of quantity and quality of collected rainwater and energy consumption for RWHS with different capacities were evaluated, as well as the benefits and challenges particularly in environmental, economic and social aspects. Presently, the RHS is more commonly applied but its effectiveness is limited by its small scale. The PHS is of larger scale and has greater potentials and effectiveness as an alternative water supply system. Results also indicate the many advantages of the PHS especially in terms of economics, environmental aspects and volume of water harvested. While the RHS may be suited to individual or existing buildings, the PHS has greater potentials and should be applied in newly developed urban areas with wet equatorial climate. View Full-Text
Keywords: water security; sustainable urban drainage system; stormwater management system; pond harvesting system; roof harvesting system; rainwater harvesting; domestic water demand water security; sustainable urban drainage system; stormwater management system; pond harvesting system; roof harvesting system; rainwater harvesting; domestic water demand
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MDPI and ACS Style

Zabidi, H.A.; Goh, H.W.; Chang, C.K.; Chan, N.W.; Zakaria, N.A. A Review of Roof and Pond Rainwater Harvesting Systems for Water Security: The Design, Performance and Way Forward. Water 2020, 12, 3163. https://doi.org/10.3390/w12113163

AMA Style

Zabidi HA, Goh HW, Chang CK, Chan NW, Zakaria NA. A Review of Roof and Pond Rainwater Harvesting Systems for Water Security: The Design, Performance and Way Forward. Water. 2020; 12(11):3163. https://doi.org/10.3390/w12113163

Chicago/Turabian Style

Zabidi, Husnna A.; Goh, Hui W.; Chang, Chun K.; Chan, Ngai W.; Zakaria, Nor A. 2020. "A Review of Roof and Pond Rainwater Harvesting Systems for Water Security: The Design, Performance and Way Forward" Water 12, no. 11: 3163. https://doi.org/10.3390/w12113163

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