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Article

Removal of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) from Produced Water by Ferrate (VI) Oxidation

1
Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, Seri Iskandar 32610, Perak, Malaysia
2
Centre for Urban Resource Sustainability, Institute of Self-Sustainable Building, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, Seri Iskandar 32610, Perak, Malaysia
3
Civil Engineering Programme, Faculty of Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Brunei, Tungku Highway, Gadong BE1410, Brunei
4
Department of Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Green Technology (FEGT), Universiti Tunku Abdul Rahman, Kampar 31900, Perak, Malaysia
5
Department of Plant Sciences, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad 45320, Pakistan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Water 2020, 12(11), 3132; https://doi.org/10.3390/w12113132
Received: 5 August 2020 / Revised: 16 September 2020 / Accepted: 21 September 2020 / Published: 9 November 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wastewater Treatment: Current and Future Techniques)
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are mutagenic and carcinogenic contaminants made up of fused benzene rings. Their presence has been reported in several wastewater streams, including produced water (PW), which is the wastewater obtained during oil and gas extraction from onshore or offshore installations. In this study, ferrate (VI) oxidation was used for the first time for the treatment of 15 PAHs, with the total concentration of 1249.11 μg/L in the produced water sample. The operating parameters viz., ferrate (VI) dosage, pH, and contact time were optimized for maximum removal of PAHs and chemical oxygen demand (COD). Central composite design (CCD) based on response surface methodology (RSM) was used for optimization and modeling to evaluate the optimal values of operating parameters. PAH and COD removal percentages were selected as the dependent variables. The study showed that 89.73% of PAHs and 73.41% of COD were removed from PW at the optimal conditions of independent variables, i.e., ferrate (VI) concentration (19.35 mg/L), pH (7.1), and contact time (68.34 min). The high values of the coefficient of determination (R2) for PAH (96.50%) and COD (98.05%) removals show the accuracy and the suitability of the models. The results showed that ferrate (VI) oxidation was an efficient treatment method for the successful removal of PAHs and COD from PW. The study also revealed that RSM is an effective tool for the optimization of operating variables, which could significantly help to reduce the time and cost of experimentation. View Full-Text
Keywords: Fe (VI) oxidation; chemical oxygen demand; polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons; central composite design; RSM Fe (VI) oxidation; chemical oxygen demand; polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons; central composite design; RSM
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MDPI and ACS Style

Haneef, T.; Mustafa, M.R.U.; Wan Yusof, K.; Isa, M.H.; Bashir, M.J.K.; Ahmad, M.; Zafar, M. Removal of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) from Produced Water by Ferrate (VI) Oxidation. Water 2020, 12, 3132. https://doi.org/10.3390/w12113132

AMA Style

Haneef T, Mustafa MRU, Wan Yusof K, Isa MH, Bashir MJK, Ahmad M, Zafar M. Removal of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) from Produced Water by Ferrate (VI) Oxidation. Water. 2020; 12(11):3132. https://doi.org/10.3390/w12113132

Chicago/Turabian Style

Haneef, Tahir; Mustafa, Muhammad R.U.; Wan Yusof, Khamaruzaman; Isa, Mohamed H.; Bashir, Mohammed J.K.; Ahmad, Mushtaq; Zafar, Muhammad. 2020. "Removal of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) from Produced Water by Ferrate (VI) Oxidation" Water 12, no. 11: 3132. https://doi.org/10.3390/w12113132

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