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Monitoring Waterborne Pathogens in Surface and Drinking Waters. Are Water Treatment Plants (WTPs) Simultaneously Efficient in the Elimination of Enteric Viruses and Fecal Indicator Bacteria (FIB)?

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Instituto de Saúde Ambiental, Faculdade de Medicina da Universidade de Lisboa, Avenida Prof. Egas Moniz, Edifício Egas Moniz, Piso 0, Ala C, 1649-028 Lisboa, Portugal
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Centro de Estudos do Ambiente e do Mar (CESAM), Departamento de Biologia Vegetal, Faculdade de Ciências da Universidade de Lisboa, Edifício C2-Piso 4, Campo Grande, 1749-016 Lisboa, Portugal
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Direção de Laboratórios e Controlo da Qualidade da Água (LAB) da Empresa Portuguesa das Águas Livres (EPAL), Avenida de Berlim, 15, 1800-031 Lisboa, Portugal
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Water 2020, 12(10), 2824; https://doi.org/10.3390/w12102824
Received: 8 September 2020 / Revised: 6 October 2020 / Accepted: 8 October 2020 / Published: 11 October 2020
Monitoring the quality of water is a requisite to prevent outbreaks related to waterborne diseases, predominantly caused by pathogens like enteric viruses, usually transmitted via the fecal-oral route. This study aimed to survey a group of enteric viruses (Enterovirus, Norovirus genogroups I and II, and hepatitis A virus) in two surface water sources of drinking water, also intending to evaluate the extent of their elimination in the two water treatment plants (WTPs) involved in drinking water production. Correlations between these viruses and fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) were also evaluated. Positive samples for viral RNA were recurrently found by reverse transcription quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) and quantified, in genomic copies per liter (gc/L) of sampled water. Viral RNAs were detected in 14 out of 27 samples of surface water, and 21 out of 36 samples of drinking water, NoV II having been the most frequently detected in both (0–78.6 gc/L and 0–12.5 gc/L, respectively). Both WTPs showed variable efficacies in the elimination of viral RNA. Only one correlation was found with FIB, between NoV II and intestinal enterococci. These results recommend the monitoring of enteric viruses over time and their inclusion in the mandatory analysis of water quality. View Full-Text
Keywords: drinking water; enteric viruses; fecal indicator bacteria; FIB; human health; RT-qPCR; surface water; water quality; water treatment drinking water; enteric viruses; fecal indicator bacteria; FIB; human health; RT-qPCR; surface water; water quality; water treatment
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MDPI and ACS Style

Salvador, D.; Caeiro, M.F.; Serejo, F.; Nogueira, P.; Carneiro, R.N.; Neto, C. Monitoring Waterborne Pathogens in Surface and Drinking Waters. Are Water Treatment Plants (WTPs) Simultaneously Efficient in the Elimination of Enteric Viruses and Fecal Indicator Bacteria (FIB)? Water 2020, 12, 2824.

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