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Article

On the Rainfall Intensity–Duration–Frequency Curves, Partial-Area Effect and the Rational Method: Theory and the Engineering Practice

Hydraulic and Environmental Engineering Department (DEHA), Federal University of Ceará, 60020-181 Fortaleza-CE, Brazil
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Water 2020, 12(10), 2730; https://doi.org/10.3390/w12102730
Received: 11 September 2020 / Revised: 21 September 2020 / Accepted: 25 September 2020 / Published: 30 September 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Urban Rainwater and Flood Management)
This research evaluates the partial-area effect and its relationship with the rainfall intensity–duration–frequency (IDF) equations. In the Rational Method, if the critical rainfall duration is shorter than the time of concentration, the partial-area effect occurs. We proved that the partial area could exist for the general ID equation i=a/(b+td)c, only when c>1. For these equations, in the application of the Rational Method, the maximum discharge at basin outlet occurs for rainfall duration (td) equal to b/(c−1). Nevertheless, for that case, the Depth Duration Frequency (DDF) has a maximum at that rainfall duration. These situations are present in engineering practice and will be discussed in this paper. Research was done to look for IDF equations with c>1 in hydrologic engineering practice. It found 640 inconsistent IDF equations (c>1) in four countries (Brazil, Mexico, India, and USA), which means that a fundamental principle for building consistent IDF equations (i.e., c>1), published in the scientific literature since 1998, did not reach the hydrologic engineering practice fully. We provided some analysis regarding this gap between theory and engineering practice. View Full-Text
Keywords: critical rainfall duration; rainfall intensity; partial-area effect; flood design critical rainfall duration; rainfall intensity; partial-area effect; flood design
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MDPI and ACS Style

Campos, J.N.B.; Studart, T.M.d.C.; Souza Filho, F.d.A.d.; Porto, V.C. On the Rainfall Intensity–Duration–Frequency Curves, Partial-Area Effect and the Rational Method: Theory and the Engineering Practice. Water 2020, 12, 2730. https://doi.org/10.3390/w12102730

AMA Style

Campos JNB, Studart TMdC, Souza Filho FdAd, Porto VC. On the Rainfall Intensity–Duration–Frequency Curves, Partial-Area Effect and the Rational Method: Theory and the Engineering Practice. Water. 2020; 12(10):2730. https://doi.org/10.3390/w12102730

Chicago/Turabian Style

Campos, José N.B., Ticiana M.d.C. Studart, Francisco d.A.d. Souza Filho, and Victor C. Porto 2020. "On the Rainfall Intensity–Duration–Frequency Curves, Partial-Area Effect and the Rational Method: Theory and the Engineering Practice" Water 12, no. 10: 2730. https://doi.org/10.3390/w12102730

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