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Open AccessArticle

Impact of Pressure-Driven Demand on Background Leakage Estimation in Water Supply Networks

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Department of Electrical Engineering, Tshwane University of Technology, Pretoria 0001, South Africa
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École Supérieure d’Ingénieurs en Électrotechnique et Électronique, Cite Descartes, BP 99, Noisy-le-Grand, 93162 Paris, France
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Council for Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR), Pretoria 0184, South Africa
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Water 2019, 11(8), 1600; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11081600
Received: 1 July 2019 / Revised: 24 July 2019 / Accepted: 29 July 2019 / Published: 1 August 2019
(This article belongs to the Section Urban Water Management)
Increasing water demand due to urbanization creates a need to develop schemes for managing water supply networks (WSNs). In recent years, hydraulic modeling of WSNs has been used to assess the state of networks in terms of leakage analysis and pressure control. These models are based on demand-driven modeling (DDM) analysis and pressure-driven modeling (PDM) analysis. The former assumes that the nodal demand is fulfilled consistently regardless of the nodal pressure head. The latter appraises the demand as a function of the available pressure head at the nodes. In a previous paper by Adedeji et al. (2017), an algorithm was presented for background leakage detection and estimation in WSNs. The results demonstrated that the algorithm allows the detection of critical pipes and the indication of the nodes where such critical pipes are located for possible pressure control. However, such an algorithm assumes a demand-driven condition of WSNs. In this paper, a pressure-driven modeling is integrated into the developed algorithm with emphasis on its impact on the background leakage estimate. The results obtained are compared to the demand-driven analysis using two WSNs as case studies. The results presented, which consider pipe and node levels, demonstrate that the reliance of the nodal demand on the available pressure head at the node influences the magnitude of the background leakage flow. It is conceived that this investigation might be crucial for the background leakage estimation while considering WSNs operating under pressure-deficient conditions. In this paper, the solution time for both simulation scenarios is also presented. View Full-Text
Keywords: background leakage estimate; hydraulic models; leakage estimation; pressure-driven modeling; water loss; water supply networks background leakage estimate; hydraulic models; leakage estimation; pressure-driven modeling; water loss; water supply networks
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Adedeji, K.B.; Hamam, Y.; Abu-Mahfouz, A.M. Impact of Pressure-Driven Demand on Background Leakage Estimation in Water Supply Networks. Water 2019, 11, 1600.

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