Influence of Convex and Concave Curvatures in a Coastal Dike Line on Wave Run-up
Institute of Hydraulic Engineering and Water Resources Management, RWTH Aachen University, Mies-van-der-Rohe Straße 17, 52056 Aachen, Germany
Leibniz University Hannover, Ludwig-Franzius-Institute for Hydraulic, Estuarine and Coastal Engineering, Nienburger Straße 4, 30167 Hannover, Germany
Laboratori d’Enginyeria Marítima, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya–BarcelonaTech, C. Jordi Girona, 1-3, 08034 Barcelona, Spain
NLWKN Hannover-Hildesheim, An der Scharlake 39, 31135 Hildesheim, Germany
Institute of Civil Engineering, University of Applied Science Kiel, Moorblöcken 12, 24149 Kiel, Germany
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Water 2019, 11(7), 1333; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11071333
Received: 10 May 2019 / Revised: 19 June 2019 / Accepted: 20 June 2019 / Published: 28 June 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wave-structure Interaction Processes in Coastal Engineering)
Due to climatic change and the increased usage of coastal areas, there is an increasing risk of dike failures along the coasts worldwide. Wave run-up plays a key role in the planning and design of a coastal structure. Coastal engineers use empirical equations for the determination of wave run-up. These formulae generally include the influence of various hydraulic, geometrical and structural parameters, but neglect the effect of the curvature of coastal dikes on wave run-up and overtopping. The scope of this research is to find the effects of the dike curvature on wave run-up for regular wave attack by employing numerical model studies for various dike-opening angles and comparing it with physical model test results. A numerical simulation is carried out using DualSPHysics, a mesh-less model and OpenFOAM, a mesh-based model. A new influence factor is introduced to determine the influence of curvature along a dike line. For convexly curved dikes (αd = 210° to 270°) under perpendicular wave attack, a higher wave run-up was observed for larger opening angles at the center of curvature whereas for concavely curved dikes (αd = 90° to 150°) under perpendicular wave attack, wave run-up increases at the center of curvature as the opening angle decreases. This research aims to contribute a more precise analysis and understanding the influence of the curvature in a dike line and thus ensuring a higher level of protection in the future development of coastal structures.