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Open AccessArticle

Residual Maintenance Using Sodium Hypochlorite, Sodium Dichloroisocyanurate, and Chlorine Dioxide in Laboratory Waters of Varying Turbidity

1
Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Tufts University, Medford, MA 02155, USA
2
Department of Disease Control, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, Keppel St, London, WC1E 7HT, UK
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Water 2019, 11(6), 1309; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11061309
Received: 11 May 2019 / Revised: 15 June 2019 / Accepted: 19 June 2019 / Published: 25 June 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Water, Sanitation, and Hygiene in Humanitarian Contexts)
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Abstract

Sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) and sodium dichloroisocyanurate (NaDCC) are commonly used for household water treatment (HWT); chlorine dioxide (ClO2) is a potential new HWT option. We compared the residual maintenance of NaOCl, NaDCC, and ClO2 over 24 hours using recommended dosages (2 and 4 mg/L) in waters of varying turbidity (0–300 NTU, from kaolin clay or creek-bottom sediments) and total organic carbon (TOC) concentrations (0–100 mg/L), for a total of 324 reactors. NaOCl and NaDCC had similar free chlorine decay rates, and ClO2 decayed more rapidly across all of the tested conditions. Little variability was observed across clay-based turbidity levels and TOC concentrations. With a dosage of 2 mg/L, a residual ≥0.2 mg/L was maintained at 30 NTU for NaOCl and 100 NTU for NaDCC; for ClO2, 4 mg/L were required to maintain ≥0.2 mg/L under all conditions except at zero turbidity. Comparisons with data from the literature suggest that the three compounds would inactivate E. coli, rotavirus, and Giardia cysts within 1 hour under all conditions, except 300 NTU for NaOCl and NaDCC. All three disinfectants are similarly efficacious for this usage; however, differences are seen in decay rates that may influence disinfectant selection depending on water storage time. View Full-Text
Keywords: chlorination; chlorine; chlorine dioxide; decay; disinfection; household water treatment; sodium dichloroisocyanurate; sodium hypochlorite; residual chlorination; chlorine; chlorine dioxide; decay; disinfection; household water treatment; sodium dichloroisocyanurate; sodium hypochlorite; residual
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Gallandat, K.; Stack, D.; String, G.; Lantagne, D. Residual Maintenance Using Sodium Hypochlorite, Sodium Dichloroisocyanurate, and Chlorine Dioxide in Laboratory Waters of Varying Turbidity. Water 2019, 11, 1309.

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