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Open AccessArticle

Managing Municipal Wastewater Treatment to Control Nitrous Oxide Emissions from Tidal Rivers

1
Department of Civil Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai 600 036, India
2
Department of Civil Engineering, and Coordinator, Indo-German Center for Sustainability, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai 600 036, India
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Water 2019, 11(6), 1255; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11061255
Received: 29 April 2019 / Revised: 1 June 2019 / Accepted: 9 June 2019 / Published: 15 June 2019
(This article belongs to the Section Water Quality and Ecosystems)
Waste load allocation management models were developed for controlling nitrous oxide emissions from a tidal river. The decision variables were treatment levels at wastewater discharging stations and the rate of upstream water release. The simulation model for N2O emissions from the river was embedded in the optimization model and the problem was solved using the simulated annealing technique. In two of the models, the total cost was minimized, while in the third model, emissions from the river were minimized for a specified constraint on the available money. Proof-of-concept studies, with hypothetical scenarios for contaminant loading but realistic flow conditions corresponding to the Tyne River, UK, were carried out. It was found that the treatment cost could be reduced by 36% by treating wastewater discharges in the upper reaches more during the high tide as compared to during low tide. For the same level of N2O emissions, approximately 16.7% lesser costs could be achieved by not only treating the wastewater but also inducing dilution by releasing more water from the upstream side. It was also found that beyond a limit, N2O emissions cannot be reduced significantly by spending more money on treatment and water release. View Full-Text
Keywords: waste load allocation; simulated annealing; tidal river; nitrous oxide emissions waste load allocation; simulated annealing; tidal river; nitrous oxide emissions
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MDPI and ACS Style

Akella, C.S.; Bhallamudi, S.M. Managing Municipal Wastewater Treatment to Control Nitrous Oxide Emissions from Tidal Rivers. Water 2019, 11, 1255.

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