Next Article in Journal
Rooting Depth and Extreme Precipitation Regulate Groundwater Recharge in the Thick Unsaturated Zone: A Case Study
Next Article in Special Issue
Influence of Changes of Catchment Permeability and Frequency of Rainfall on Critical Storm Duration in an Urbanized Catchment—A Case Study, Cracow, Poland
Previous Article in Journal
Innovation Issues in Water, Agriculture and Food
Previous Article in Special Issue
Reservoir Evaporation Prediction Modeling Based on Artificial Intelligence Methods
Open AccessArticle

Water Quality Prediction Model Based Support Vector Machine Model for Ungauged River Catchment under Dual Scenarios

1
Institute of Energy Infrastructure (IEI), Universiti Tenaga Nasional, Kajang 43000, Selangor, Malaysia
2
Department of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University Malaya, Kuala Lumpur 50603, Malaysia
3
Civil Engineering Department El-Gazeera High Institute for Engineering Al Moqattam, Cairo 11311, Egypt
4
Department of Civil Engineering, School of Energy, Geoscience, Infrastructure and Society, Heriot-Watt University, Putrajaya 62200, Malaysia
5
Department of Water Engineering and Hydraulic Structures, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Semnan University, Semnan 35131-19111, Iran
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Water 2019, 11(6), 1231; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11061231
Received: 29 April 2019 / Revised: 14 May 2019 / Accepted: 15 May 2019 / Published: 13 June 2019
Water quality analysis is a crucial step in water resources management and needs to be addressed urgently to control any pollution that may adversely affect the ecosystem and to ensure the environmental standards are being met. Thus, this work is an attempt to develop an efficient model using support vector machine (SVM) to predict the water quality of Langat River Basin through the analysis of the data of six parameters of dual reservoirs that are located in the catchment. The proposed model could be considered as an effective tool for identifying the water quality status for the river catchment area. In addition, the major advantage of the proposed model is that it could be useful for ungauged catchments or those lacking enough numbers of monitoring stations for water quality parameters. These parameters, namely pH, Suspended Solids (SS), Dissolved Oxygen (DO), Ammonia Nitrogen (AN), Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD), and Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD) were provided by the Malaysian Department of Environment (DOE). The differences between dual scenarios 1 and 2 depend on the information from prior stations to forecast DO levels for succeeding sites (Scenario 2). This scheme has the capacity to simulate water-quality accurately, with small prediction errors. The resulting correlation coefficient has maximum values of 0.998 and 0.979 after the application of Scenario 1. The approach with Type 1 SVM regression along with 10-fold cross-validation methods worked to generate precise results. The MSE value was found to be between 0.004 and 0.681, with Scenario 1 showing a better outcome. View Full-Text
Keywords: support vector machine; water quality; dissolved oxygen support vector machine; water quality; dissolved oxygen
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Abobakr Yahya, A.S.; Ahmed, A.N.; Binti Othman, F.; Ibrahim, R.K.; Afan, H.A.; El-Shafie, A.; Fai, C.M.; Hossain, M.S.; Ehteram, M.; Elshafie, A. Water Quality Prediction Model Based Support Vector Machine Model for Ungauged River Catchment under Dual Scenarios. Water 2019, 11, 1231.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop