Next Article in Journal
Groundwater Recharge Decrease Replacing Pasture by Eucalyptus Plantation
Previous Article in Journal
Wastewater Pump Control under Mechanical Wear
Previous Article in Special Issue
Non-Parametric Regression Analysis of Diuron and Gabapentin Degradation in Lake Constance Water by Ozonation and Their Toxicity Assessment
Open AccessReview

A Review on the Current Knowledge and Prospects for the Development of Improved Detection Methods for Soil-Transmitted Helminth Ova for the Safe Reuse of Wastewater and Mitigation of Public Health Risks

Centre for Environmental Sustainability and Remediation, School of Science, RMIT University, Bundoora West, Victoria 3083, Australia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Water 2019, 11(6), 1212; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11061212
Received: 20 May 2019 / Revised: 29 May 2019 / Accepted: 5 June 2019 / Published: 10 June 2019
Climate change, increase in population and scarcity of freshwater have led to a global demand for wastewater reuse in irrigation. However, wastewater has to be treated in order to minimize the presence of pathogens, in particular, the ova of soil-transmitted helminthes (STHs). Limiting the transmission via removal of STH ova, accurate assessment of risks and minimizing the exposure to the public have been recommended by health regulators. The World Health Organization (WHO) guideline specifies a limit of ≤1 ova/L for safe wastewater reuse. Additionally, the Australian Guidelines for Water recycling (AGWR) recommend a hydraulic retention time of over 25 days in a lagoon or stabilization pond to ensure a 4 log reduction value of helminth ova and to mitigate soil-transmitted helminths associated risks to humans. However, the lack of fast and sensitive methods for assessing the concentration of STH ova in wastewater poses a considerable challenge for an accurate risk assessment. Consequently, it has been difficult to control soil-transmitted helminthiasis despite effective mass drug administration. This limitation can be overcome with the advent of novel techniques for the detection of helminth ova. Therefore, this review presents an assessment of the current methods to detect the viable ova of soil-transmitted helminths in wastewater. Furthermore, the review focuses on the perspectives for the emerging state-of-the-art research and developments that have the potential to replace currently available conventional and polymerase chain reaction based methods and achieve the guidelines of the WHO in order to allow the safe reuse of wastewater for non-potable applications, thereby minimizing public health risks. View Full-Text
Keywords: wastewater reuse; soil-transmitted helminths; ova; guidelines; detection; state-of-the-art techniques wastewater reuse; soil-transmitted helminths; ova; guidelines; detection; state-of-the-art techniques
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Ravindran, V.B.; Soni, S.K.; Ball, A.S. A Review on the Current Knowledge and Prospects for the Development of Improved Detection Methods for Soil-Transmitted Helminth Ova for the Safe Reuse of Wastewater and Mitigation of Public Health Risks. Water 2019, 11, 1212.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop