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Analysis of Water Losses and Assessment of Initiatives Aimed at Their Reduction in Selected Water Supply Systems

Institute of Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Infrastructure and Environment, Czestochowa University of Technology, Brzeźnicka 60a, 42-201 Częstochowa, Poland
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Water 2019, 11(5), 1037;
Received: 10 April 2019 / Revised: 10 May 2019 / Accepted: 14 May 2019 / Published: 17 May 2019
(This article belongs to the Section Water Resources Management and Governance)
PDF [672 KB, uploaded 29 May 2019]


This paper presents the analysis and assessment of water losses in water distribution systems of three water supply companies operating water supply networks in the area of effect of underground mining. The analysis of water losses was conducted based on numerous indices allowing for obtaining objective information on the condition of the water supply system. The method of the analysis of percentage water loss index was extended by the methods of determination of losses according to the International Water Association. The results of the analysis lead to the conclusion that with regular actions, the companies have reduced water losses in recent years to a level considered to be good compared to national data and average compared to international standards. The value of the failure intensity index for all companies in 2011 was over 1.0 while currently it is about 0.5. The decrease in Non-Revenue Water basic loss index (NRWB) from more than 20% for all analysed companies in 2008 to a few percent in 2017 and the decrease in Infrastructure Leakage Index (ILI) for companies A and C to less than 2.0 are evidence of the good condition of the network. This is also confirmed by the unit water loss index per capita, with its value in 2017 being 9.1 dm3/(inhabitant day) for company A, 11 dm3/(inhabitant·day) for B and 7.4 dm3/(inhabitant·day) for C. The several years of analysis and evaluation of numerous indices of water loss presented in the paper reveals the effectiveness of the adopted strategies of reducing leakages in the distribution system. It should be emphasized that the analysed companies have been involved in comprehensive initiatives aimed at reducing water leakages, resulting in a substantial reduction in water losses. GIS monitoring systems and databases are particularly helpful in reducing water losses. The basis of the activities is monitoring of flow and pressure in water supply networks and active leakage control. Network zoning with simultaneous observation of minimum night-time flows allows for preliminary location of the failure. Equipping companies with special leakage detection devices such as geophones, stethophones or correlators enables quick detection of leakages. The next step is to replace water meters with more and more accurate ones and to implement radio reading of water meters. All analysed companies perform systematic replacement of old steel and cast iron pipes which cause a large number of leakages that are often difficult to identify, thus leading to water losses. View Full-Text
Keywords: water loss; failure frequency index; water loss indices; monitoring of the water supply network water loss; failure frequency index; water loss indices; monitoring of the water supply network

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Ociepa, E.; Mrowiec, M.; Deska, I. Analysis of Water Losses and Assessment of Initiatives Aimed at Their Reduction in Selected Water Supply Systems. Water 2019, 11, 1037.

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