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Hydrogeochemical Evaluation of Groundwater and Its Suitability for Domestic Uses in Halabja Saidsadiq Basin, Iraq

1
Groundwater Directorate of Sulaimani, Kurdistan Region 46001, NE, Iraq
2
Division of Mining and Geotechnical Engineering, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources and Engineering, Lulea University of Technology, 971 87 Luleå, Sweden
3
Department of Geology, University of Sulaimani, Kurdistan Region 46001, NE, Iraq
4
Komar University of Science and Technology, Sulaimani 46001, Iraqi Kurdistan Region, Iraq
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Water 2019, 11(4), 690; https://doi.org/10.3390/w11040690
Received: 20 January 2019 / Revised: 13 March 2019 / Accepted: 29 March 2019 / Published: 3 April 2019
(This article belongs to the Section Water Quality and Ecosystems)
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Abstract

Evaluation of the hydrogeochemical characteristics and groundwater suitability for domestic use was conducted in the Halabja Saidsadiq Basin in the northeastern part of Iraq. The total studied area is about 1278 km2 with a specific Mediterranean-type continental interior climate, which is cold in winter and hot in summer. To conduct the required laboratory chemical analysis for groundwater samples in the studied basin, 78 groundwater samples, in total, were collected from 39 water wells in the dry and wet seasons in 2014 and analyzed for major cations and anions, and the results were compared with the permitted limits for drinking water. An examination of the chemical concentrations of the World Health Organization drinking water norms demonstrate that a large portion of the groundwater samples is suitable for drinking, and a preponderance of groundwater samples situated in the class of hard and very hard water types for both seasons. Suitability of groundwater for drinking use was additionally assessed according to the water quality index classification. This showed that more than 98% of groundwater samples have good water quality in the dry and wet seasons. Conversely, the classification of groundwater samples based on Piper’s diagram designates that the groundwater type is alkaline water, with existing bicarbonate along with sulfate and chloride. However, water–rock exchange processes and groundwater flow have been responsible for the dominant water type of Ca–Mg–HCO3. View Full-Text
Keywords: hydrogeochemistry; water quality index; domestic use; Halabja Saidsadiq Basin hydrogeochemistry; water quality index; domestic use; Halabja Saidsadiq Basin
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Abdullah, T.O.; Ali, S.S.; Al-Ansari, N.A.; Knutsson, S. Hydrogeochemical Evaluation of Groundwater and Its Suitability for Domestic Uses in Halabja Saidsadiq Basin, Iraq. Water 2019, 11, 690.

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